Brief information on the biology and distribution of birds

Capercaillie ordinary

Capercaillie common in mixed and coniferous forests of the western border of the USSR to the river. Lena and Baikal.

Winter grouse spend the night in the snow in the winter with little time — on the trees near the trunk. In the education of young males do not participate. Female suits nest on the ground.

Habitat — of tall coniferous forests with mossy swamps and low forest.

Capercaillie winter eats needles of pine, cedar, spruce and fir, mountain ash berries, viburnum, juniper, buds and leaves of trees, if a little snow — berries cranberries and cranberry. In the summer, except berries and green feed, eats insects.


Weight from 3 to 5.5 kg, rarely more. Eggs in a clutch of 6 to 10. Incubation period of 26 to 29 days.

In the spring, before the thaw, the capercaillie mating season begins — mating. Hunting for grouse on a lek in most areas is prohibited.

Capercaillie stone

It inhabits the forests of eastern Siberia from the Yenisei River to the Pacific coast of Kamchatka and inclusive.

Lifestyle is poorly understood. Winter prefers wooded ridges and steep foothills ridges. Usually kept singly, sometimes groups of 2-4 individuals.

Inhabits deaf cedar and pine forests, pure deciduous and mixed forests.

3-3.5 weight of males, no more than 4 kg, females from 2 to 3 kg.

Unlike ordinary grouse, talk ends on the ground.


The forest and forest-steppe grouse spread from the western borders of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. Avoids the taiga. Not found in Sakhalin and Kamchatka.

In the Caucasus, found another kind — the Caucasian black grouse. It is distinguished by smaller size, male tail feathers are bent to the sides and bottom, and the wings have white mirrors.


Summer grouse are ground life in winter feed on trees, spend the night, digging in the snow, in extreme cold sitting in the snow in the afternoon. Jack female suit on the ground. Male participation in the education of the young do not accept. After drying, the chickens may follow a female.

Favorite places of inhabitation

of — parts of the forest, interspersed with fields, meadows, glades, clearings.

Winter grouse feed primarily catkins and buds of birch and alder, pine needles and juniper berries. Summer food is more varied, a significant share of it are insects.

Weight of males 1.2-1.4 kg, the weight of females slightly less.

The clutch of 4 to 12 eggs. Incubation period of 24 to 26 days.

Grouse represents an important commercial and sport hunting in Siberia and north of the RSFSR.


Fritillaria widespread, forest area inhabited by. western boundary to Sakhalin. Not in the forests of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Kamchatka.

It is found in mixed, coniferous and deciduous forests with thick undergrowth. For life to grouse

availability of berries, water and fine gravel or coarse sand.

Grouse are sedentary. In winter, keep in pairs or in small groups. Spend the night in the snow. Female makes the nest on the ground. After drying, the chicks follow the female, males do not hatch, but keep close to the nest and brood.

Young growth in the first days insect feeds exclusively

st ant eggs. Adult birds feed mainly on vegetable foods.

Weight of about 400 eggs in a clutch of 6 to 14. Incubation period of about 3 weeks.

Fritillaria is a commercially important species. The meat of excellent quality. Exciting hunting in autumn buzzer.

Ptarmigan white


Ptarmigan is common in the band shrub tundra and forests of the western borders of the USSR to the Pacific coast and in the forest-steppe of Western Siberia and Kazakhstan.

In the forest zone it is based on moss bogs and burns. In the forest-steppe zone — in the river valleys, around lakes, willow and birch thickets.

Observed in winter migrations of tundra and forest tundra. In the forest zone in winter grouse leaves moss bogs and kept near the rivers and lakes and shrubs. Conducts land-based way of life. Participate in the education of young female and male.

Winter grouse feed shoots and buds of willow and birch, with a shallow snow — shoots blueberry summer — berry shoots and berries, fruits, sedges, grasses and insects. Young animals initially fed exclusively insects.

The average weight of 600 g in the clutch from 7 to 16 eggs. Incubation lasts about 23 days.

Grouse and white harvested in large quantities for export and domestic market. Is an interesting object of sport hunting.

Grey partridge

Partridge inhabits the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, Kazakhstan and southern West Siberia. The northern boundary of its distribution is in Karelia, Arkhangelsk region, the Middle Urals and Narym.

Keeps it in the steppes, meadows, fields, fallow lands, mostly on the beams, groves, shrubs and areas overgrown with weeds.

Conducts land-based way of life. Run fast. Well gets close to the person. In some areas of deep snow grouse migrate for the winter in southern areas.

It feeds on grass seeds, cereals, berries, shoots, leaves, grass, summer — insects /

Weight 400-500 g males, females 350-400, the number of eggs in a clutch of 9 to 26. Incubation period of about 3 weeks. In part, the education of young male and female take.

Is the object of hunting and sport hunting. In many areas, mining is prohibited.

Common Quail

Quail nest on the western border to Lake Baikal. Comes to 61 ° north latitude. To the east of Lake Baikal, found similar species — a mute quail.

Quail lodges in the meadows, fields and steppes. Prefers fields sown with millet. Sometimes occurs on the edges and margins of bushes.

Quail arrive in the spring, in April — May. After arrival begins mating season. Males brutally fighting over females. Pairs did not. Are land-based way of life. Most of the winters in Africa, along the way quail gather in large numbers in the Crimea and the Caucasus.


They eat grass seeds, corn and other cereals, grass shoots, various insects and their larvae.

Weight 100-120 g, in the autumn of 150, the eggs in a clutch of 8 to 15. The duration of incubation for about 3 weeks.

The meat is very tasty. Hunting is of great interest to hunters and sportsmen.



Pheasant in the USSR it is distributed in the North Caucasus, the Caucasus, the Volga Delta, the Central Asian republics, Kazakhstan, on the border with the MPR, the Amur and Ussuri region. Recently acclimatized in Moldova, Ukraine and the Crimea.

He lives near water, river valleys and lake shores, occupies almost impassable tugai formed Giro and willows. In the Far East, settling in oak forests with a rich understory.

Pheasants are land-based way of life, very fast run, fly reluctantly. Early spring males start tokovat. During the current fighting there like fighting cocks. Falling out of the snow causes the migration of the phase, sometimes massive death from starvation. Pheasant gets along well with the person nearby, switching to food crops.

It feeds on insects, seeds, herbs, berries, shoots of plants, seeds of crops, fruit. The chicks are fed initially only animal food.

Weight of 1 to 1.5 kg male. Females are somewhat easier. The number of eggs in a clutch of 10 to 18. Incubation period of 21 to 25 days.

Pheasant has a great commercial value and is an interesting object of sport hunting.

Grey Goose

Gray goose nests from the western border to the Pacific Ocean. The northern boundary of its distribution comes to Karelia, the mouth of the Northern Dvina, Northern Urals, the lower reaches of the Ob River, the middle reaches of the Yenisei River, Baikal, Amur River delta, south to the borders of the USSR.

River valleys with oxbows and lakes, steppe lakes, estuaries with reed and reed beds — gray goose habitat.


Geese arrive early. In Western Siberia, near Mound appear in the first days of April, in the south of Kazakhstan — in early March. The nest is built on higher ground, often twisting his cane. Geese remain in the nest is not more than a day, after which the parents are sent to the water.

From Western Siberia and the European part of the USSR for wintering geese gather on the Caspian Sea. From Eastern Siberia to winter geese fly to India.

Feed on the rhizomes of aquatic plants, grass, leaves, meadow grasses, cereal grains and sprouts of winter crops.

Autumn, gathering in flocks, sometimes damaging crops.

Weight 2,6-4 kg. Eggs in a clutch of 4 to 12, usually 6-8. Incubation period of 27-28 days.

Bean Goose

In the European part of the USSR, bean goose breeds only in the northern regions of Siberia meets the strip of tundra to the Altai Mountains and the border with the MPR. In the far north nests on the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Kolguev Vayg &and h, etc.

Nest in the tundra geese kept near lakes and along rivers and islands. In the forest belt choose deaf forest lakes and marshy meadows.

Way of life is similar to the life of the gray goose. In the far north Bean arrive late — in early June, winter in the Black Sea, China, and India.


Food is the same as the gray goose. Weight 3-4.5 kg. Usually 5-7 eggs in a clutch. Incubation period of about 30 days. Gus is an important tool for food in the Far North.

White-fronted Goose

White-fronted Goose breeds in the tundra of the north and the northernmost islands of the Kanin Peninsula and to Chukotka. Prefers shrub tundra with rivers and lakes. Willingly kept in the river valleys of the marshy meadows.

By way of life is similar to the Bean and gray goose, but less cautious. Couples stay together all the time educating the young. White-fronted geese winter in India, China, the Mediterranean Sea, in the USSR — the Caspian and in a smaller number on the Black Sea. They eat grasses, sedges, reeds like eating during the span feed in the fields.

Weight 2.5-3 kg. Eggs in a clutch 6-7. 25-27 days of incubation periods.


Mallard nests from the western borders of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. None in the strip of tundra and forest-tundra. The border of the same as the state borders of the USSR.

Habitats — grassy marshes, lakes, streams, ponds, pools, overgrown with aquatic vegetation.

Mallard nest built on the ground near the pond, sometimes in trees.


Wintering mallards on the Caspian Sea, in India and China. In the presence of water ice part kryakovyh ducks wintering in place. Feeds on seeds, shoots, roots sedges, pondweed, ezhegolovnika, Sitnikov and other plants. Animal food consists of mollusks, crustaceans, larvae, aquatic insects. Before flying mallard field visit and feed the various grains.

Carried mallard ducks before others. In central full clutch it in mid-May. The number of eggs in a clutch is usually 8-9. Incubation period of 21 to 26 days. Of posterity cares only female.

Mallard weight of 1 to 1.5 kg, sometimes up to 2 kg.

Mallard — the ancestor of domestic ducks. In the middle zone is the focus of commercial and sport hunting.



Pintail nests from the western borders of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. Extends far to the north, is found on the islands of the Arctic Ocean. The southern border of distribution almost always coincide with the state border of the USSR.

Adheres to wet grasslands and shallow lakes with rich aquatic vegetation. During the span stops on big rivers.

Pintail careful of other ducks. Jack does on the ground, well its masking. Sometimes, the nest is removed from the pond by a considerable distance. Wintering usually kept in the shallow bays. Overwinters in the Caspian Sea, in India and China, on the coast of Western Europe and the Mediterranean.

Feeds mainly vegetable foods sedges, grasses, pondweed, duckweed and other aquatic vegetation. In the north eats blueberries, blueberries and cloudberries.

Weight of 0.6 to 1 kg. In laying 6 to 12 eggs. Duration of incubation of 23 to 25 dney0

In the mid-latitudes is the subject of sport hunting. In the north, is produced in large quantities.


Teal is widespread, with the exception of the northern parts of the tundra zone and islands of the Arctic Ocean. He kept on steppe lakes, river valleys, swamps. By the conditions of space unpretentious. Avoid water with pebble beaches and rocky bottom.


The nest is built on the ground, usually on a dry hillock or mound. The female lines the nest with down.

In place of large flocks of wintering teal do not form, prefer fresh water. Winter in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Africa, India, China and the south of Europe. Teal feeds on seeds, shoots, roots of sedges, grasses, grechishki and other aquatic plants. Aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, crustaceans make up a smaller percentage of food than vegetable food.

Weight of 0.2 to 0.5 kg. The number of eggs in a clutch of 7 to 12. Incubation period of about 3 weeks. Meat quality is superior svistunok Mallard. Produced in large numbers.


Northern border of garganey passes approximately through the Archangel, the upper Pechora, Ob on Birch, Upper Tunguska, further to the east boundary is unclear. In the south, it is more plentiful.

From the preceding species in larger sizes and color. Even an inexperienced hunter always tell garganey produced by the white bars feathers that have teal-gray whistle.


Garganey kept grassy bogs, lakes, overgrown aquatic vegetation, floodplains. Prefers the open.

It feeds mostly on the banks of ponds and shallow water. Nests garganey build on land, sometimes in trees.

On the wintering grounds are kept in large schools. Winter in southern Europe, Africa, India, KiUae,. In the USSR — in the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Food is mostly vegetarian, sometimes animal. Weight of 0.3 to 0.6 kg. The clutch usually 8-9 eggs. Incubation period of about three "weeks.

Garganey is subject to commercial and sport hunting.



Goldeneye nest from the western borders of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. In the north — to the limits of the forest vegetation. The border of the forest due to the presence and'' waters.

Prefers large lakes with clean water, holding the river valleys, always next to the forest. Overwinter at sea coast.

Goldeneye nest on one of the first to arrive. Nests are usually in hollow trees, rarely on the ground and in the crevices of rocks. It flies faster than other ducks.

In the USSR, winters in southern Ukraine, on the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, Central Asia, the ice-free waters of Siberia (Lake Teletskoye, p. Angara lake. Hanka).

Feeding animals in the breeding and plant foods, wintering at sea coast feed of animal feeds.

Weight of 0.6 to 1.1 kg. In laying 8 to 12 eggs. The duration of incubation for about 3 weeks.

Represents an important commercial and sport hunting. The meat has the smell of fish.


Pochard nests in central forest area, forest-steppe and the northern parts of Central Asia, to the east extended to Transbaikalia. Found in Kamchatka.

Prefer small lakes rich aquatic vegetation. Lakes with brackish water does not escape. To winter usually lasts for shallow areas Shore.


Good dives. The nest is built on the water, on dry hummocks on hall and a handful of reeds and other vegetation. The nest is lined with down. On the second day after hatching the chicks are able to dive.

In the USSR, Pochard wintering in large numbers in the Caspian Sea, on a smaller — in the Black Sea and Central Asia. It feeds on the seeds of aquatic plants, mollusks, insects. Vegetable or animal food prevails depending on habitat and time of year.

Weight of 0.7 to 1.1 kg. Eggs in a clutch is usually 7-9, sometimes up to 14. Incubation period of 22 to 25 days.

Dive represents an important commercial and sport hunting. Good quality meat, is not very different from the meat dabbling ducks.

Tufted Duck


Tufted Duck nests on the north-western border of the USSR to the Pacific Ocean. Prevalent in the north to the tundra, sometimes flies into the tundra. The border of the North goes through Ukraine and Belarus, on the middle reaches of the Don, Balkhash, Zaisan Valley to continue along the state border. Found in Kamchatka and Sakhalin.

Nesting duck prefers standing water, brackish water does not escape. Winter holds shallow coasts.

Comfortable nest mostly on the ground, sometimes in the hollows of trees. Brood, who lost his mother, clings to the next brood. Our winters in the Black and Caspian Seas and southern Central Asia, particularly in large numbers going to the Caspian Sea.

It feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, small fish and seeds of aquatic plants. Winter forage purely animal.

Weight of 0.5-0.7 kg, sometimes up to 1 kg. The clutch is usually 7 — 9 eggs. Incubation period of 25 to 27 days.

Tufted Duck represents an important commercial and sport hunting.


Bustard nests in the steppes of the European part of the USSR, Kazakhstan, Transbaikalia and Amur.

Feather grass, grass and sagebrush steppe — a place of its habitat.


With the onset of cold weather bustards migrate south, but beyond the southern border of the Soviet Union do not usually go. Winter in the South Caucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Spring when mating the male throat pouch filled with air and strong swells. In the education of the young male does not participate. There is no oil gland bustards, highlighting fat grease pens. Consequently © ^ cold, wet weather quickly become wet feathers and bird loses its ability to fly.

Bustards eat seeds of wild grasses, grains and seeds of cultivated plants, insects, worms, eating as lizards, frogs and mice.

Males reach a weight of 16 kg, females up to 7 kg. Eggs in a clutch of 2 to 6. Incubation period of about 25 days.


Distributed in the USSR on virgin land and grass steppes of Ukraine, western Siberia and Kazakhstan.

Virgin steppe or deposits, mainly feather — habitats. Avoid dry sagebrush steppe. Bustard — a migratory bird.

In the USSR, winters only in the steppes of the Caucasus. In the winter flies to Egypt and India. During the breeding male keeps close to the nest.

Bustard very careful, well-run, fly fast and sharp. Before leaving little bustards gather in large flocks. In little bustard, like bustards, no oil gland. It feeds mainly on insects, their larvae, snails and worms, as well as seeds, buds and shoots of plants. Weight of about 900, the number of eggs in a clutch of 3 to 7. Incubation lasts about three weeks.



Crake is widespread in the USSR. Nests: to the east — to the river. Lena, to the north — to Arkhangelsk and further by 62 °. sh.

Habitats — grassy marshes, wet meadows, mountain slopes covered with meadow vegetation.

Corncrake careful, well-run and reluctantly flies. In the southern region in the corncrake is two clutches. Winters in Africa.

Food — insects, grubs, caterpillars, mollusks, worms, seeds of wild and cultivated plants. Weight of about 200, the number of eggs in a clutch of 8-10,

Great snipe

Grouse inhabit the forest and forest-steppe zone of the European part of the USSR and Western Siberia to the Yenisei, nesting places in the Caucasus.

Habitat — extensive wet meadows, marshes hummocky with shrubs and small trees.


Snipe arrives later than other shorebirds. During the current brutally males fight among themselves.

Winters in Africa. Twilight leads lifestyle.

It feeds on worms, small insects, mollusks and plant food. Weight 170-310 g The clutch is usually 4 eggs. Incubation period — 2.5 weeks.



Snipe inhabits almost the entire territory of the USSR, except for the Arctic tundra, desert regions and arid steppes of the south.

Snipe — wading bird walking on wet meadows, moss and peat bogs.

He arrives in the southern districts in March, the Northern — by June, after the flight begins tokovat. Wintering in the Mediterranean, Africa, Ceylon. In the USSR, winters in the South Caucasus and Central Asia.

Twilight leads lifestyle day hiding in the grass. It feeds on worms, insect larvae, mollusks, roots and stems of marsh plants. Weight 100-200 g The clutch is usually 4 eggs. Incubation period of 17-18 days.

Snipe is of great interest to the sport of hunting.

Half snipe

Half snipe nests in the southern zone of the tundra in the forest belt of the USSR. Keeps on boggy swamps, lakes with muddy banks, covered with horsetail, rushes and sedges.

He arrives at the same time as a snipe. Departs late, sometimes with snowfalls. In the USSR, winters in the Crimea,


Caucasus and Central Asia. The main wintering areas — North Africa and India.

It feeds on worms, insect larvae, mollusks and more often than others bekasinye, plant food. Weight 50-90 g The clutch is usually 4 eggs.

Half snipe is the object of sport hunting.


Woodcock circulated throughout the forest zone of the USSR, with the exception of the northern strip, occasionally nest in the forest-steppe.


Especially fond of old raw wood, crossed glades, gullies rich in wet lowlands.

In the Crimea and the Caucasus, the woodcock is a settled view. He hibernates in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Africa, Egypt, India and other countries.

Woodcock arrives with the formation of the first thaw. Soon after their arrival starts traction — current woodcock. In the education of the young male does not participate.

Main food consists of earthworms and insect larvae, in smaller quantities — shellfish and sometimes berries.

Weight 250-450 g eggs in a clutch of 3 to 5. Incubation period of about 2.5 weeks.

Woodcock is the most favorite object of sport hunting.

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