An important type of tourist equipment is the compass. It is believed that 2-3 compasses to the group is sufficient. Indeed, so many compasses can do in a campaign. Still need to strive to ensure that every traveler had his compass. If a person wants to learn how to navigate the terrain — and without this skill can not be a real tourist, — that he should use every opportunity to practice. Young tourists somehow believe that this opportunity has only one who currently leads the group. Wrong. Such an opportunity is provided for all members of the group. It is only necessary to release or at rest ask the card to see where this is supposed to come for a transition, leading to question of the intended line of motion, and then, during the transition, follow the direction of the group, with the surrounding area, trying to imagine where at the moment is a group. When something is not clear, you need to ask questions to the facilitator or team leader. This practice promotes the development of skills to navigate. To do this, and needs its own compass.
The basic types of compasses, which can meet the young traveler. Hadrian is a field compass, school (or normal) compass, tourist compass, liquid compass. Compasses, produced in the form of trinkets, fit in bracelets for watches, trinkets are beautiful and orienteering unsuitable.
Field Compass Hadrian is the most popular among tourists. It is reliable, easy to use, portable. Graduation at the limb of the compass is 3 °. It should be noted that the scale of the limb was signed not only in degree, but in the thousandths, ie, in units used in artillery and infantry goniometer. And the bill goes degrees clockwise due to thousandths — against this sometimes confuses beginners tourists. But we must remember that thousands simply should not be ignored — they are a tourist never used. All samples are conducted in degrees: one has to be to look only at the bottom, closest to the center of a series of numbers — 15, 30, 45, etc. (degree scale signed by 15 °). Zero corresponds to the reference white line on the limb.
The glass lid can rotate the compass, it is equipped with sighting device consisting of a slot and the front sight. These correspond to two pointer mounted on the inside of the lid. With this convenient tool to monitor by keeping the right direction, point to the right division of the brim. These pointers as well as the northern end of the arrow and mark the "North" and "South", "West" and "East" on the limb covered with a special compound. If you hold a compass in the bright sunlight or electric light for 15-20 minutes, this structure will glow in the dark, making it easier to work with a compass at night.
A similar device has a compass Adrianovskim school compass. As such, it is a simplified version of the compass. Cover school compass does not rotate and sighting device has. So by standing in azimuth directions strictly recommended to put the lid on top of the glass matches so that it passes through the required division on the limb and the center of the compass (the point of the turning arrow). Luminous parts of this compass is not. But the main disadvantage for newcomers is design of the needle. On Adrianovskom compass it is designed so that no one is certain what the end point north. At the school compass needle completely symmetrical and the two ends of it differ only in color. Blue points north, red — to the south. Meanwhile, young tourists who are accustomed to the fact that the inscriptions and signs in red usually stands out the most important, often believe that the red end of the arrow should point to the north. All of the simplicity in the design of a compass due to the fact that it is designed for use in schools for educational purposes, and not for orienteering. However, in the absence of other compass, it can be used in the campaign.
Tourist compass is a variant of the AK artillery compass, enlarged to the size of a small saucer. The accuracy of the readings of the compass is not increased. Graduation of the compass 5 °, not 3 °, as a compass Hadrian. Due to its size, it is poorly placed in the pocket, but simply because of the large weight of the way. Of all the compasses are suitable for use in a campaign, it is certainly the least practical.
The only feature of the compass, which, perhaps, may be considered an advantage — is the presence of a mirror on the inside of the flap. Mirror used in determining the direction of the visible objects. If using Adrianovskim compass, bring sighting device at eye level, then at the same time it may easily happen that the northern end of the arrow quietly shifted away from zero on the limb. When you rotate the cover usually have to make a little effort, and it may be enough to cause such an unwanted bias. If we keep the compass below eye level, then, of course, the combination of the arrow with a zero count is under control, but the line of sight at the same time does not pass exactly through the front sight and the slot, and thus, the accuracy of determining the direction of decreasing. We have to embark on various tricks to achieve the desired result. When working with the tourist compass, this problem is greatly simplified. Initialed the desired object through the slot opening in the front sight and hinged lid, and the lid is attached to itself such a position that the mirror could see the magnetic needle is aligned with the zero on the limb or not.
At first glance it may seem that this is an important advantage over the compass of Hadrian. In fact, tourists rarely have to resort to the determination of the exact direction of the visible object.
Finally, also deserve attention widely spread liquid compasses "Sport-3", made in the GDR (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. Liquid Compass "Sport 3": / — magnetic needle, 2 — liquid ("bulb"), and 3-scale bar, 4-guides;
5-dial, signed in degrees, b-risks to determine the direction of motion, 7 — millimeter scale, 8 — magnifying glass, 9 — washer-pedometer.
Although most of this compass is designed for use on the orienteering event, he can apply for tourist trips. This compass has two advantages. The first is the extremely high stability of the magnetic needle. When concussion compass while walking, jogging, and even its vibrations are minimal. This is achieved in that round box ("bulb"), in which the arrow is placed, is filled with fluid. Hence the name "liquid compass." The second advantage is that the definition of the desired direction (azimuth) on the map and set the compass to the desired azimuth constitute a single operation.
For this base plate compass on the map is applied to the line connecting the start and the end, the point of the route. The icon A, which is shown on the map scale must be the same starting point. After that, "flask", within which is a magnetic needle is rotated so that the guides that are on the bottom of the "bulb" installed along the meridian of the map. Zero division limb, which rotates together with the "bulb" should in this case coincides with the northern area of the map. This whole operation ends. The division of the limb, which was against the middle guide line base plate bearing a numeric value, and if the compass to deploy so I to the north end of the needle stopped between the two identified risks shown in the bottom of the "bulb", similar risks to the base plate will point the right direction. Has this compass is near devices that make it convenient for orienteering event. Scale marked along the long edge of the base plate, designed in the scale of 1: 25,000. This is the usual scale of maps used in orienteering event. Hence, by measuring the distance of the scale bar on a map orienteer immediately gets it in meters and kilometers. Excludes transfer action in the mind of the distances on the map in the distance on the ground, and it saves precious seconds for the competition. However, there is a conventional millimeter scale, which is applied along the short edge of the base plate. In the middle of the base plate set into three polovinoykratnaya with magnifier in order to facilitate viewing of small details on the map. There are washer-pedometer, which facilitates memorization traversed many steps if the orienteer uses this way of estimating the distance traveled.
All of these benefits compass "Sport 3" fully revealed on the orienteering event, but are insignificant in a tourist trip, except, of course, the main thing — the stability of the magnetic needle. The lack of a compass — no brakes on the magnetic device and a fairly large size. He, of course, is not bulky, as a tourist compass, but it is no different adrianovskogo portability.
Any compass should be checked periodically. To do this, put it horizontally, to give direction to calm down and see division, near where she was staying. Then bring it to a metal object, a compass to display the arrow out of balance, and quickly remove it. If, after a number of oscillations hand stops near the old division, then the compass is working properly — if not better to replace it with another. In a campaign compass, if not in use, must always stand on the brakes. When do work with a compass, you first need to put the arrow on the brake, and then later move it somehow (lower arm clean in the pocket, and so on). Failure to do so leads to rapid wear of the compass and its failure. Adrianovsky compass vdetym sold with a strap, and the school has an eyelet for the strap. So young tourists love to put them on the arm, like a manual clock. However, the use of a compass attached to the arm is usually uncomfortable. Better to keep it by the strap, put on your fingers, or put on a long cord around the neck.