Now let's talk about how to go on a hike. Contrary to the opinion of many, it is also necessary to be able to.
Here are some practical tips. While driving is not recommended to sing. The image of the tourist, fun walking with a backpack and provocative singing the song, created by men, not knowing tourism. Real tourist never sing on the go. Song knocks the breath, so once it becomes harder to go.
What famous tourist song? They sing in the evening by the fire, when all things are over, there's no hurry and have time to sit quietly and look at the stars, at the flying sparks in the darkness, to dream, to sing.
Should not be neglected halt. Very often, young tourists, going camping, going 3-4 hours without stopping and by prematurely exhausted. Short ten minute halts are required during the day's journey, even if the guys think that they are not tired. Adult tourists usually make such halts every hour: 50 minutes walk, 10 minutes resting. Young tourists, especially for beginners, you can do them more often, in 40-45 minutes, and if it is very difficult to go, then at first even every half hour. Such short halts saving power, and the tourist can easily be moving 8-9 hours.
Ten minute halts should be fully used for recreation. Unacceptable at this time venturing fuss and bustle, even if the young tourists feel more cheerful. Fight fatigue should not when it came, and before its occurrence.
In addition to the regular ten-minute rest stops, the first transition after 15 minutes after the extraordinary recommended short rest. In 15 minutes, usually it turns out that someone in the group or uncomfortable laid backpack, or third leg shoes or sweater should be removed because it's hot to go. In short, this camp is needed for removal of small faults in equipment.
Care should be taken up with the pace and movement. This is very important. Nothing, perhaps, not so exhausting tourist as "ragged", uneven pace, when the guide is hardly lagging, it suddenly makes a jerk, and then he lost a race. To go as far as possible at the same speed, unless they leave the camp, a few minutes you can move slower than usual to get involved in the usual pace gradually, and then before you stopped to rest for 3-5 minutes should begin to gradually reduce the pace to translate heart and lungs for a quieter operation.
One should not think that you can relax on the run, slow down for a while. If the group is very tired, it's better to make an extraordinary break, we move on to the uneven pace. Therefore, the first requirement for a guide — to be able to keep an even pace.
If the campaign is extremely undesirable uneven movement, then it is absolutely unacceptable pace. Meanwhile, young tourists, behind for some reason, from the group, sometimes try to catch up with friends before going to run. Even worse, when someone is trying to collect flowers or berries forwards and, not to be outdone, many times catching up with the group running. If the path comes strawberry fields or meadows dotted with flowers, it is best to ask the head to make a small stop. Head always agree to such a halt, if not some very good reasons against it.
You can not stretch the system group during the transition. Often you can see a group of 10-15 people stretched a mile or more, those who feasibly, have gone ahead, who are weaker — hopelessly behind, the guys wander in groups of 2-3 people, the guides can not see the rear. This stretched, torn band almost uncontrollable. In the long voyage it can lead to accidents. And in Sunday's march so can anyone be left behind, to fight off the group, and then will have to search the entire route will be disrupted. We must remember the law of tourist: the group in motion is equal to the weak. Meanwhile, many young tourists, going camping, convinced that here as in competition: the strong need to "give all" in order to set a good pace, and the weak — that have the power to reach for them. In the campaign it will only lead to rupture of the group, the management of which goes so much time that an increase in the velocity of the strongest is not refundable.
But what if one person holds the entire group? Leave it, of course, impossible. The next trip it is better not to take. It is necessary to offer him work out, if it is weak, and if he could, but did not want to force myself to go faster, then he did not go more than a campaign. The next time you head closer to filling treat his marching group.
Do not forget about this method of equalizing force in the group, as different loading backpacks. True, having to that extent, the manager must to exercise tact. Very often children, were weaker than their comrades, protesting at attempts to take their part of the load due to the fact that the director, giving his disposal, somehow hurt their feelings. We must not forget that in adolescence and early adulthood guys have heightened sensitivity in this period of human life can be painful to touch things that in the future it will seem very small things. Therefore, if the manager sees that the group appeared lagging, do not rush to order to unload them. We need to think about how to redistribute the load to it did not look deliberate underlined cheyto weakness. It would be better if the weaker guys do not just take some of the load, and exchanged heavy things on a light but bulky. Let the part of their backpacks not look empty. Not bad, if a redistribution of goods will be covered not only the obvious "wimps", but one or two of the children of medium strength. Then it is easier to present the case as if the redistribution of goods caused by some other considerations. In an extreme case, such actions need to better motivate download badly that they were not eager to come.
In some cases, to reduce fatigue is useful to give a person a few lumps of sugar. Sugar — carbohydrates. Nutrients are beginning to enter the muscles in just a few minutes. Experienced travelers face a difficult transition is often taken in the pocket of a few lumps of sugar. This custom is not a good idea to learn as well and the young tourists.
In the campaign does not care for anyone who is going. To the entire group during the transition to keep the pace at a weak fellow, they usually put in the head of the column, immediately after sending. Going back, strong guys will not lag behind the group, and the guide easier to keep pace, if he has those for whom it is necessary to watch beside him.
Break the group during the transition can happen, not only because of the inequality of forces, but sometimes because of mistakes made by the guide. Here is one of them, perhaps the most typical. The group is suitable to any obstacle. This may be a blockage, a creek with slung log, a fallen tree, a ravine. It is not always an obstacle may be difficult or dangerous, but any such obstacle slow motion. While the guide moves through it, the whole group is back and, willy-nilly, is waiting. If the guide after overcome the obstacle continues to go immediately to their former pace, forgetting that the other also takes time to overcome the obstacles, the group will inevitably burst. The first few people usually have time to "put pressure" and catch up with the guide, and that's coming from behind once are far behind.
Here is another common error guides, though less conspicuous. As mentioned, before stopping for a short ten-minute break, we must begin to gradually reduce the pace. This allows the weaker players to catch up to before stopping to rest the entire party was a single compact group. Inexperienced guide to do otherwise. Knowing that it is time to halt, he outlines ahead convenient place to stay and the last half-mile to go as fast as what he is capable to simulate the finishing spurt athlete on a treadmill. Besides the fact that these jerks followed sudden stop is not very useful for directing and those young tourists who support him jerk is the following. Guys are weaker immediately behind. View fast forward leaving comrades depressing effect on them. Fatigue starts to seem insurmountable, and their rate of movement slows down even more. As a result of a halt to the place they come in 3 — 5 minutes later than the rest. These minutes are in motion, while their stronger comrades rest. Meanwhile, exactly 10 minutes after the finish of the advance team distributed command output. It turns out that the weaker the trip participants, most in need of rest, are systematically to stay at 30-50% less time than the other guys. Fatigue increases rapidly, the lag of the weak against the other comrades increases in marching column appears the gap, which is difficult to eliminate. Therefore, the guide should not only maintain an even pace, but also to monitor the group, often look back, to prevent the formation of discontinuities.
Instruct the guide path selection only if he can learn the ropes and to properly maintain the group. If he is a good walker, but the landmark weak, the group released another and lead, which comes with a compass and a map right behind the guide, pointing to the direction of motion. Weakened or exhausted most expedition members then put after it.
Except that in the column are required to appoint closing. Most often, it is the second on the strength and experience of the tourist in the group. He's usually found in the backpack first aid kit and repair kit, it should always be ready to provide the necessary assistance. But his main task — to keep the entire group and not allow anyone to stay behind him. It is responsible for ensuring that no one is left behind or lost.
Now we come to yet another tourist rule. The group should move in a certain order, not in the one that was an accident. Improperly received those young tourists who decide to let all go, who it wants. The success of the campaign is not conducive. Need to think in advance which of the children better cope with the responsibilities of directing and closing, and before going on the trip to announce it to the whole group. During the transition, we must make changes in the group if anyone starts to go hard.
In the educational campaign permutation group produce more with the educational goals to train the children in the role of guiding, leading, trailing, to make them feel like a camp goes to the head of the column, in the middle behind.
And what does during the transition team leader?
Its main task — to ensure general order in the moving route group. So it can take on any responsibility for group travel. Usually somehow believe that the manager must during the transition to combine the role of a guide and facilitator. But this is not necessary. Often the case, for example, that as the head of the campaign is a school teacher, which is oriented on the ground and keeps pace worse than the guys with badges and level of tourism. He appoints one of them and the lead, and guide, often closing, and he is somewhere in the middle column.
Here are some useful tips. During the transition, it is recommended to follow the time on the clock. First of all, it is necessary to strictly observe the frequency of ten-minute rest stops. It is best to entrust the guide or facilitator. But it is advisable to initially control operates the not one, but two people were young tourists, as mentioned above, at the beginning of the day is often forgotten about the need to make a halt. In addition, control over time allows the number to make the transition to judge the distance traveled. Habit to watch time and relate it to distance gradually leads to the development of feelings, the rate of motion, which in turn greatly helps a person in orienteering, as already mentioned above. Finally, keep track of time necessary to make the most of leisure ten minute halts, the fact is that the usefulness of this holiday is not only halts the timeliness, but also very much on the right choice of places for them. Sometimes it makes sense to stop for a few minutes earlier than expected, or alternatively, take a little longer to find a good place to stay. It makes no sense, for example, on a hot summer day, the group stopped to rest in the open under the scorching sun. After such a "rest" of the band only raskisnut, become lethargic and will go harder. In cold weather, the main requirement to place a halt is its protection from the wind. During summer heat, however, the wind is desirable, but, more importantly, they need to be a shadow. But the presence of water, contrary to the opinion of many experienced travelers, it is not necessary and, in fact, is generally undesirable. Why is that, as described below.
All this means that during the transition period should be considered in advance of the next camp and figure out where to stop a group to rest.
It is no accident timing of traffic on the route is becoming increasingly popular, not only among children but also among adult groups and, in some cases, it has to apply to the proceedings of the campaign. With this timing, easy to evaluate tactical literacy group.
When driving through the woods to be feared tree branches and bushes. In tourist handbooks and manuals sometimes a recommendation is take the branches to the side, hold their hands, not to hit overtaking comrade. This recommendation is in practice impossible. After all, in order to hold the branch should linger for a moment. It is not difficult to imagine how fast the group will move, if everything will be delayed about each branch to hold it for at least a couple of seconds. Therefore, the group recommended that beginners do not hold the branches better if coming from behind takes a safe distance. As the accumulation of cruising experience necessary to develop the habit of properly allocate branches. Branch that blocks a path to bend down to the ground, leaving it under his elbow. In this case it is given fluctuations in the vertical plane, that is perfectly safe overtaking.
In very dense bush or undergrowth is useful to protect your eyes, put his hand elbow forward. In this case, put his hand on his head, as if adjusting his hair, but his elbow do not leave the side, and deploy forward. Do not attempt to cover his eyes with his hand — this can take his own view, while exposed forward elbow prevents see.
No need to jump when you can step over. During the trip the tourist's often need to go through the fallen trees, the roll out of a few fallen trees, etc. Young tourists in this case usually try to jump over them, or, in extreme cases, walk on, and then jump off. Experienced travelers seeking to avoid the possibility of jumping. After all, a tree trunk or fallen trees may be begun to rot, when you jump you can accidentally catch on some knot or slip.
All this may lead to a fall, and fall with a backpack, especially heavy — something unpleasant.
Recommended to keep the hands free. This was already mentioned in the section where there was a speech about packing a backpack. Tourist, whose hands are free, with loss of balance and falling forward falls on the hands, and the one whose hands are busy, falls to earth person.
It should not be absolutely necessary to resort to the device of crossings over water obstacles. Unfortunately, in handbooks and manuals, addressed to young tourists often contain descriptions of the various crossings, which are used by experienced tourists in remote and difficult hikes — Tajik way in the sixth, with the help of ropes, different ways of devices treasure and even crossing to the small rafts. However, application of these methods gives a good effect when there is under the direction of the person who owns them confidently. Novices, first introducing the ferries usually make different errors. Brief description found in handbooks and manuals are free and do not contain analysis of such errors. For starters, there is a tourist's view that the passage — it is very simple. A desire to use the advice given in the book, rather than to spend 20-30 minutes to find a bridge, lava or baggage used by local people.
Young tourists rarely travel to remote places where the device crossing their money is the only way to overcome water obstacles. Therefore, going to any great river, the better, first of all, consider where in the area may be crossing the river, induced by local residents. If one could see the roof of nearby villages or individual houses, you go there, there's almost certainly there is a ferry. If the river or at some distance from it through several paths you can take some time along the river until you reach the trail, fleeing down to the water: in most cases it leads to the crossing. If the river is not particularly large, you can use the ford. The first sign of the ford — the path or track road leading down to the water and have continued on the opposite bank. You can try to find a ford and independently. Look for him to be on broad sectors where the tap, the water is usually not deep. It must be remembered that the direction of the ford is rarely straightforward — the shortest distance from shore to shore. Much more often have to cross the river obliquely. In this case, it is necessary to look to pass, not to touch, and watching the water. Where water is lighter, there are shallow spots. Ripples on the surface of the water — also a sign of a small space. The nature of the coast, too, can tell the direction of the ford: the steep bank of the river is deeper in a shallow — shallow.
If the river is deep, but narrow, then the ferry, you can use it lying across the trees, the ones that are just above the water. Ferried on such a tree is useful for supporting the pole. Trees that hung high above the water, it is best not to use. It is also important to remember: While one person moves in a log, the other must not react to it.
For crossing over fairly large bodies of water may have to resort to the boats used by the local population. It is strictly forbidden to use old waterlogged boats that are sometimes worth the shore. At the sight of such a boat in young tourists often a thought — to pump out water from it, or plug the hole and score the cross. The consequences of such a crossing can be very sad.
Similarly, do not count on a ferry across the river to swim. Even under the most favorable outcome of such crossing is unlikely to deliver on the other side of backpacks. All of the above referred to cross the river of central plains of the country. Well, if the young tourists will go on a trip, where it may be necessary to cross over powerful and fast the river (in the Caucasus, Altai, etc.), where you have to be prepared to use the crossing, used by older tourists in difficult circumstances? Then you need to find an experienced climber and outdoorsman or under his direction carefully work out the organization of such crossings: here is right for an experienced person, not a young man, who had been a time in the mountains and bearing a "climber of the USSR", who believes that he knows the crossing because he heard about them in theory classes and saw how their elders suggest.
What else can you advise Tourists visiting one of his first trips? While in motion or at a ten-minute halt should not drink the water. The more water is consumed, the harder it will be to go after, and thirst is not reduced. Thirst arises not because of the tourist water loss, leaving the sweat from the body, due to heavy discharge of salts. Remember how salty it seems the pot if he gets on his lips as he eats his eyes. All this is due to high concentration of salts. In ordinary water contains much less salt, so to restore the disturbed balance of its salt would have to drink a lot. That is why the campaign no matter how much drink — very thirsty: for the water in the body receives much less salt than was with then. And to go with this is difficult: people sweating, breathing strays, the load on the heart.
Therefore it is recommended to do the following. Eat something salty in the morning: dry roach, herring, bread, sprinkled with salt — or even just swallow schepotochku salt. Then you need to drink hot tea to quench their thirst and then drink more. In the extreme case, if the mouth is very dry, you can rinse it with water.
When the craving most difficult — to refrain from drinking for the first time. It gets easier. Conversely, if you do not hold once more it will be very difficult. It happens that, after taking a few sips from a flask, a tourist and then can not stop drinking and without end: in a village near the well — right out of the bucket, in the woods, by the stream — lying, leaning to the water and can not put it down. We may be sure that by the end of the day it will be completely exhausted. We must remember that in the morning after drinking, do not drink the day before the lunch halt, and if it is not, then it is better to be patient and the other half of the day — till the evening. Incidentally, this is why it is not necessary to arrange ten minute halts near water. Too large in this case, the temptation to drink. Where an experienced traveler is limited to what will wash his face and hands, propoloschet mouth, one of the young tourists will probably be drinking water, making it appear that he only rinses his mouth.
At the dinner halt also do not just come down on the water. It is best to wait until the tea is ready, juice or anything like that. If you wait too long, then, in any case, you should not drink at once, as soon as the group began to camp. Tourist still overheated walking and drink far more water than they really need. And again, you should never drink off without tearing. It is better to sip as if trying to taste the drink. Before swallowing water to rinse her mouth. Between sips to make small pause. If you drink slowly, you can quench your thirst quite a bit of water.
Avoid the heat hits: not to mention the possibility of heat stroke, such transitions are very exhausting any person. Very often, young tourists morning long sleep, then slowly collected and resulted in only about ten out in a way. As a result, the transition falls on the hottest hours. It is much better to get up early, at about 5-6 am, quickly pack up and make the switch to the morning chill. And in the afternoon, when the sun is baking, make a three-four-hour break, somewhere near the water, swim, slowly cook the dinner, if necessary — to sleep off in the shade. Later in the afternoon, when the heat subsides, you can re-start the road and take the camp hours at 8pm. This routine allows you to save energy and at the same time to take the right amount of kilometers in the most hot days.
Do not forget that in the campaign (at least the first time) the guys will need an hour more sleep than at home. Otherwise, even if the first few days it quietly, gradually begin to accumulate fatigue, a tourist returning from a campaign is not rested and exhausted. These trips are not wanted. We must also remember something else: you can not afford to establish a camp for the sake of speed somehow. Just a nice, deep sleep ensures complete recovery of strength, which means that everything must be done to sleep comfortably. For the same reason, you should immediately agree: the word "retreat" in the tent silence. And then sometimes for the first time got to march under the influence of bright boys and excitement almost to midnight are talking, getting to sleep those who are tired of more of them. Where here to talk about the proper rest!
It is advisable to seek from young tourists meaningfulness of their actions in the campaign. Everyone knows the famous Suvorov expression that every soldier. should understand his maneuver. This fully applies to the hiking trails. Therefore, it is very useful before going to spend 10 minutes to clarify the participants of a campaign that is supposed to do for today, show route on the map, to announce who will be directing, short circuit, leading, in what order the rest will follow, etc.
Equally useful to have a half-hour evening fire analysis of the day. In the one-day campaign analysis can be carried out at the station waiting for a train or even in the car on the way home. Start parsing the best manager or that of the participants, who were leading. First of all he recalls is that supposed to do for now and assess to what extent have planned to implement, which helped, which prevented the goal, what is good and what is bad did the trip participants. Then in turn expressed the tourists. Their attention should be pointed at mainly on observed shortcomings.
Bad points hike at first noticed the guys easier than positive. The right decisions in the field sometimes seem so natural and self-evident that it is necessary to have well-known experiments to evaluate the underlying calculation for them, fine assessment of the situation and the high tourist literacy. On the contrary, false solutions are quite obvious. So when the first guys find it difficult to conduct the analysis, not knowing what to say, should natalkivat their thought is on any flaws. It is important to start to think about what is happening and to voice their opinions. Albeit they are one-sided. Over time, everything will fall into place. Completes the analysis again, the manager or leader, explaining the issues raised on the analysis.
Such critiques — a very useful thing, especially in educational campaigns. Knowing that the evening would have to speak out, the guys begin to think about what is happening during the day, analyze the situation and made the decision in this situation, evaluate their own actions and those of his comrades. The significance of this can hardly be overestimated.
In the end, there were no books or instructions can not cover all specific situations developing in the campaign. In the end, the tourist has to make decisions yourself, but it needs to learn to think in a campaign. Daily critiques in this regard is one of the most effective means.
Of great importance are critiques and in establishing a good, friendly atmosphere in the group. Many hot disputes, skirmishes, mutual accusations and insults manager can prevent if from the beginning the clear order — all claims against each other speak out in the evening, on the analysis. And before the evening is the time "away" from the surging passion, to look critically at their position, in some cases, see the rationality in the position of the opponent, or to understand what makes him stand on a busy position, finally, consider whether the subject of dispute, debate .
Of course, leading the investigation, the manager must keep control of them in their hands. Otherwise, the analysis can easily move into the empty night altercation or exchange experiences. Let the young tourists expressed on the analysis briefly. It is best to avoid speaking, repeating what has been said, but at the same time, it is necessary that on controversial issues, each gave his opinion. No need to allow to interrupt the speaker remarks, objections, questions. Let everyone speaks when before him in turn. If the desired object has already spoken before, you can, interrupting his promise to give the word when all will vote only once, and the discussion will continue, in the meantime, consider whether to focus public attention on the issues raised. If not, explain in a few words, why not appropriate to pursue further discussion of this issue, and be sure to give the final word its reasoned decision on the dispute.
Of course, not every campaign should be no investigation. In a large group analysis is usually ineffective. It requires too much time. Often, instead of candid conversation, he turns into a formal event. There is no point in having the analysis at the end of the campaign, which is an isolated event in the life of the school. But if you have to work with a certain group of guys all the time, it gives a lot of critiques.
And a few more comments. Not accepted during the transition to overtake fellow, especially if the group goes smoothly. Usually move in a campaign tourists chain, in a column by one. If someone has to go to the head of the column, made a quick stop, and expedition members who find themselves in front, took a step toward the trail, freeing the way to the one who has to go forward. Not accepted or withdraw from the column and get a job to any of the participants from the side and slightly behind, as for some reason they like to do young tourists. Marching in a column to someone starting to think that it wants to pass, and it forces him to hurry in going from standing water, fallen trees, etc. — in short, a series of small, almost imperceptible to the eye jerks, and that in places where need a little more than usual care and caution. If for some reason you want to bypass going ahead, you just have to ask him passed forward, rather than trying to overtake on the go.
No need to go through the forest, crying, laughing, singing, included transistor radio. Silence promotes proper rest. No need to hug the city noise in the woods, do not play them there. It should be noted also that in the general hubbub is difficult to manage the group. The leader can not hear the closing, if he requests to detain a group. Part of the group can not hear the orders of the head or leader, who must quite difficult if every time you should try to talk down the overall noise. Finally, noisy group is deprived of the many interesting meetings — with moose, rabbits, squirrels and other forest dwellers. For the same reason, the tourists made, backpacking, to ensure that nothing on the move within it are not rattled, not rattled.
It is not good to leave behind the inscriptions on the rocks, on the walls of an old monastery, carved their names on trees, etc. Many young tourists, unfortunately, so do. It is sad and painful it is to look at the mutilated yardstick letters ancient monument or a rock, visible from afar.
Meanwhile, there is a good tourist tradition borrowed from the practice of mountaineering. Climbers, climbing to the top of the pass, or, leave a note in the round — a small pyramid, which they stack of stones lying nearby. Preliminary note lay in an empty tin can, sometimes wrapped in cellophane or polyethylene, to protect from the effects of moisture. Tourists traveling in the mountains, do it this way. Tourist taezhniki often leave the bank with a note on the site of a camp, strengthening it in the fork of a camp fire Rogulin. Sometimes done on Rogulin or cross bars campfire long zates and write on it that it is necessary (instead of the note). Sometimes with a note left a little present — a few sweets, a chocolate bar or something. The note is usually indicated that the group was in this place, and when, how to route that involves doing next. And below is the full composition of the group, and follow the signatures of all members or only the head.
Leaving the camp, a must-see place — whether remains of forgotten things. Young tourists are amazingly able to cast away their things, to lose them. Very often overlooked reason axes. Best place to view the closing halt manager or both, but in any case, must be determined who should do it. Otherwise, you may find that they are relying on each other, leaving space halt without inspection.
And the last. That tourists are not taken to whimper and limp at the difficulties encountered — they know everything. But if you do something wrong, and this is to know the head of the campaign, young tourists often do not suspect. Cut his hand, they try to cut wood with one hand, instead of being switched jobs with one of his comrades. Ankle ligament stretching, they do not talk about it, and the next day leg swells so that it becomes impossible to walk. Maybe in someone's eyes and looks like a man a hero, but a common cause will only suffer. And its something real tourist always put first.