The first method of orientation

To increase the accuracy of movement in azimuth, guidance on topography recommend the following methods.

The first of them — is the use of intermediate targets. Defining the direction of the compass in the area, which corresponds to our azimuth necessary to identify an object (tree, shrub, etc.), who is strictly in the right direction. This item will be our first intermediate guide. It is only necessary to guide was quite noticeable and not lose sight of the approach to it. When he reached the first intermediate point of reference, in the same manner the second interim guideline and move until they reach it. After reaching the second intermediate guide, find the third landmark, etc.

The second method — tracing the path traversed in order to withstand the alignment direction (target is called the vertical plane passing through the area on a skating rink, two points). Having started the movement in azimuth, leaving in its path through any gaps known landmarks — goals count or something. Looking at the movement back, making sure that the direction of motion does not deviate from the line marked abandoned landmarks. The deviation from the desired direction it is easy to detect. On the snow fell instead proveshennoy line can move to the alignment exercise, watching the rest of the back ski or footprints.

The third method — the use of companion for keeping the right direction. Leading outlines the right direction and shows it to one of his comrades. He begins to move in that direction he and the leader, at the rear, adjusts traffic. Notice the deviation from the desired direction, made by walking in front of a man, much better than my own. This method can be considered variants of traffic on the target. Clearly, if the send forth not one, but two or three people or more, the direction of keeping accuracy increases. The most it will be if the lead will be the end of the group and will see in front of the whole chain of tourists. In this case it is easy to note the relatively small difference between the desired azimuth and the direction in which the group is moving. But experience has shown that if the forward left more than two persons, the master becomes difficult to manage them. He is often nedoslyshat, do not respond to his commands, and sometimes there is a squabble, the group must be stopped. Usually as the "in front" use one, at least two people.

The fourth technique used to repay a bug that occurs when traversing small obstacles — densely growing groups of trees, shrubs, debris, etc. To such an error does not accumulate, it is advisable to avoid them in turn to the right, then left.

Fifth recommended in guidelines trick is in the account of steps. Imagine that, following an azimuth of 35 ° elevation. 211.5 to forester house (see Fig. 8), a group of some slant to the left. Then it can get close to this house without noticing it, and go somewhere bleed card, completely lost my bearings. To avoid this from happening, it is important to know how far the group has passed. To do this, it is recommended to count the steps. Pre-need to know the length of its own steps. On some parts of the area, the length of which is well known, such as the area between kilometer posts along the road, you need to count the number of steps required to do to go the distance, and then calculate the average stride length. If the site was short — about 100 meters or less, this measurement should be repeated several times and take the average of all measurements. Now, knowing the length of your step, you can by going on an azimuth, scoring steps to know the distance traveled, and start looking for the desired object too early or, on the contrary, going somewhere close to him, not to go further in the direction to take. It is recommended to consider every step in isolation and counting steps in pairs, scoring a left-or under

his right leg.

The following method — the sixth — designed for the event that occurs on the way an insurmountable obstacle, a significant size. Suppose, as shown in Fig. 9, it will be a lake.

The first method of orientation

It is recommended to bypass it as follows. Go along obstacles, seeing a new bearing and scoring pairs of steps. When he reached the edge of an obstacle, turn and go still bearing. When an obstacle is set aside to take an azimuth opposite to, in which the motion along the obstacle (back azimuth is different from the present 180 °). After passing on the opposite azimuth exactly the same number of pairs of steps, then turn on the initial azimuth.

Seventh reception of the number recommended in the handbooks and manuals on the topography is as follows. If you need to follow a route length of, say, 4 miles, the bearing is not immediately taken to the endpoint, and the whole path is divided into a number of segments that are bounded by some clear guidelines. For example, if you want to go with the height 211.5 through the woods to the house of forester (see Fig. 8), the motion is not straight in azimuth 35 °, as shown in the figure, but first to the point of triangulation, then to the pit of her before cutting, and finally to the desired object — houses forester. The meaning of this technique is to be expected at a distance of 4 km lateral displacement error of approximately 400 m divided into four segments. At each of the segments it can (as well as for the entire distance) be 1/10 the distance, but because each of these distances is about 1 km (a little more or a little less), then in each case the error reduced to about 100 m . A search within 100 meters — which means search within visible for humans.

Finally, the eighth reception of pre-preparation of all data required for the movement, and the design of the scheme in the form of movement in azimuth and in the form of the corresponding table. Seized on the route much more difficult. There could be rain, frost, wind and darkness, and the approaching exhaustion that lead to errors, and even just an uncomfortable situation — there is no place to spread out evenly card to work, holding it in the air, and so therefore the whole the work is done in advance. First study to map the route of the forthcoming movement, divided into short sections, are defined clearly and is easy to identify objects on the ground that will serve as benchmarks that indicate the beginning and end of each segment. Then determined by the distance from the reference map to a reference point (ie, the length of each section), which are expressed in pairs of steps on the map to determine the bearing from one landmark to another. Finally, take a sheet of paper, and razgrafiv table discharged back track sections, corresponding azimuths, the length of these sections in the pairs of steps. Completes the work on mapping the tabular data. She sketched on a small piece, so she was more convenient to use on the route. The diagram shows the start and end points of the route, and all the landmarks that separate one section from another. The scale of the scheme is arbitrary, but, showing landmarks on the circuit, trying to properly convey their relative. Landmarks are connected by straight lines, and make about them to sign, indicating the azimuth for the area and its length (in pairs of steps).

This is the set of techniques that are recommended guidelines for the topography in order to improve accuracy and precision of movement in azimuth.



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