As already mentioned, the insurance is currently the first place among all causes of NA in the mountains (22%). On the one hand, this is due to some lag domestic production of means of insurance for mountaineering and mountain tourism, and on the other – a lack in the literature that promotes the latest methods of insurance, real characteristics produced sports equipment, the maximum allowable load in the insurance and self-insurance. As a result, many athletes lack understanding of the risks posed by non-compliance with the basic rules of insurance.
Very useful in this regard are regularly organized by the Mountaineering Federation of the USSR in recent years in the Caucasus fees for security. Charges carry out tests sport climbing equipment and insurance funds in conditions as close to real climbing in the mountains.
The purpose of this section – based on analysis of the National Assembly in climbing the main problems of insurance and self-insurance, to identify the main types of errors athletes develop practical recommendations for improving the methods of insurance and training methods climbers before going to the alpine zone.
The basic principles of insurance are the same in any mountainous terrain. On the rocks, ice, snow, only different ways of organizing the belay points, etching rates, the provisions of the belayer, the type of hooks and possible support for the insurance. In line with this, we consider all cases of violation of general insurance with the (principal) position and in terms of means and methods.
In the first case, the nature of the slopes and terrain, where there was a group at the time of adversity, not fundamental. The main thing here – a fundamental understanding of an athlete, where, when and how to insure yourself and fellow bond. In the second case, on the contrary, all the attention paid to the technique of insurance in relation to the concrete. Relief, which will help reveal the typical errors.
In Fig. 7 gives a general picture of all the errors in the insurance, made at the National Assembly for the 1969-1978 years. The numbers on the vertical axis shows the number of errors, and the serial numbers on the horizontal – a technique in which the error occurs:
1) simultaneous movement of bundles of dangerous ice-snow slope;
2) the output of the first in a bundle on the steep slopes of more than 5 meters up from the last point of insurance;
3) The second in a bundle under the first and struck rocks or strays in the fall of the former;
4) Releasing of a safety rope;
5) insurance for the ice-snow slopes with an ice ax, without hooks;
6) The second in a bundle organizes the self;
7) simultaneous movement of bundles of steep cliffs;
8) partners in conjunction lose eye contact;
9) Insurance 4-8 people in one hook;
10) unreliable insurance second in the snow;
11) the first choice in conjunction unreliable projection;
12) The second movement starts earlier than the first organized insurance;
13) on the rails without the self;
14) the first in a bundle organizes the self;
15) Insurance tough second rope without etching;
16) organization of insurance on one side of a snowy ridge (bridge);
17) "bad" hook or a "hard" insurance;
18) symbolic pile of rock anchors;
19) move in tandem with an ax on the ice-snow slope;
20) without walking on cords closed glacier;
21) Use of single repshnura insurance;
22) hangs on grasps node;
23) no gazebos;
24) inability to apply samozaderzhanie snow.
If the NA 3 people died, the error was noted in the chart the number "3" on the one hand, gave her a certain "weight" on the other – the real situation, because this mistake is not less than 3 groups (we say "at least" because not all the perpetrators of the killing group error). The analysis showed that of all the 212 who died in the period from 1969 to 1978, 145 allowed from 1 to 3 errors in insurance (of errors was 226). The percentage of them are distributed into three groups. As can be seen from Fig. 7, the majority of the weight I have a group of errors (/ -9). It includes a 163 error, or 72%, and reflects the violation of the basic rules of insurance climber on mountain terrain. By regular frequency (1-3 times per year) of the error of this group are now the real security problems typical in mountaineering, decide to be in the first place.
Analyze in more detail each of these problems.