Especially emotional development is closely linked to the physiological characteristics of excitation and inhibition that occur in the brain. In the study of conditioned reflex activity in animals Pavlov identified four main types of the nervous system. These types differ from each other based on the strength or weakness of the nervous processes, their balance or imbalance (ie the predominance of one over the other), mobility or inactivity. Classification of the types of the nervous system, developed by Ivan Pavlov in a study of the brain of animals, mostly coincided with characteristic temperaments of people, this two thousand years ago, the "father of medicine" Hippocrates.
The latter is known to be described sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic. By Ivan Pavlov, sanguine – people with strong, balanced and mobility of nervous processes, choleric also have strong, agile, but unbalanced nervous processes with a predominance of excitation over inhibition, characterized by strong phlegmatic inert nervous processes dominated by inhibition, and finally, melancholic – people with weak excitation and inhibition.
Modern neuropsychology distinguish more temperaments, but for practical purposes it is sufficient to consider particularly those described by Hippocrates and recently investigated by Pavlov.
Sanguine, with strong, balanced and mobility of nervous processes, and are able to actively work for a long time, to quickly switch from one emotional state to another, it is easy to move from rest to work and vice versa. They are able to find a way out of difficult situations, are able to set and solve complex problems.
Choleric has a strong excitation and somewhat less strong inhibition process, and they have a less mobile, and therefore choleric can quickly and easily switch from one activity to another, after a rest quickly went to work. But after work, as well as after the conflict, choleric unable to immediately calm down. He is easily excited, as a strong excitation process has insufficient balanced braking. Therefore such people must learn to produce in his ability to restrain their reactions to his surroundings.
Choleric, if ill-bred, is difficult to communicate. As a person with a strong nervous system, he may become a leader. Choleric-head vigorously works, but his subordinates sometimes hard
communicate with him. He often explodes over nothing, pulls people do not always observe the rules of courtesy, etc. He is rude, creates around itself turmoil, confusion and nervousness situation, suppresses initiative.
Phlegmatic – a man with strong but immobile nervous processes, so it slowly enters the begun business, but always brings it to the end. Once in the role of a leader or a team leader, he will lead quietly and systematically. But, however, he never takes a quick fix, and it's in emergency situations sometimes fraught with disastrous consequences.
Melancholic have weak nervous processes. They lost in difficult situations and can not always find a way out of a difficult situation, it is reluctant to take responsible decisions, quickly tired of the physical and mental stress, need a longer stay. People with a weak nervous system distressing various troubles and diseases. Even with minor injury they can lose consciousness. Recovery period they usually last longer than people with a strong nervous system. They find it difficult to adapt to climate change, to new surroundings.
Phlegmatic hard to communicate with sanguine. Easier to communicate with sanguine choleric. Phlegmatic and choleric is very difficult to get along, but the evidence shows that knowledge of the characteristics of people due to circumstances (hiking trails, stay on the same ship for a long time, getting into an emergency situation and being together for a long time in stand-alone mode of existence) helps to improve relations even When nonconforming temperaments creates a seemingly good reason to talk about the psychological incompatibility and the threat of impending conflict.