In tourist handbooks cooking usually receives little attention. It is assumed that, with products, any person will be able to cook the food. Yet it is important to not only make products of something edible. It is necessary that the food was prepared well. However, not always young tourists have the required culinary skills, so it would be appropriate to give some useful tips on cooking.
Let's start with the basics. How much food should be taken for each brew? The question was often baffled by young tourists. Home mom makes it "by eye." Very often, a daughter or son can not do that, and even if they can, they are often hit by an unusual number of people that need to cook. Indeed, rarely 8-10 gather for dinner at the home table. At the same time, the campaign is a very common size of the group.
At first, the case could facilitate knowledge-weight ratio and the amount indicated below. In a normal half-liter mug is included (in grams): monkey-370-400 buckwheat, millet-410, oatmeal-350-420 peas, noodles (broken line) and vermicelli-210. In a tablespoon full of running out to the edges, is placed (in grams) butter (ghee or butter) -15, sugar-12-15, condensed milk, milk powder, eight-, salt-15.
Although these figures are approximate (weight cereals depends on the humidity and the amount of oil or sugar spoon — on whether or not you take a spoon to the edges or with a small slide), they are useful to write down in his notebook and supply chief campaign manager. Knowing the approximate ratio between the weight and volume of products will help in the early stages to regulate the issuance of products without making blunders. Gradually, as you gain experience, young tourists are less likely to resort to estimates and are increasingly taking products "by eye", as do the hostess.
In cases where products must be spent exactly the norm, such as in long-term campaigns, where you can not fill them in a way, it is recommended to take one cup as a measure, to fathom the whole rump and write the results. Similarly, it is necessary to count the number of pieces of crackers and sugar in a pack. All of this will very accurately monitor the delivery of products, whereas the above rough estimate may well give an error of 15-20%.
Another question that often baffles the young tourists: how much to take water to cook porridge? Again, at first it will be useful to use some indicative data. Thus, for each cup of cereal require the following number of cups of water: semolina-7-8, buckwheat-7-8-6 millet, oatmeal-8, oatmeal-3,
Figure-7-5 barley, peas, beans, beans-3-4.
Soup should be taken cereal or pasta rate of 30-40 grams per liter of water, semolina — less grams of 20 — 25.
Now for some practical advice regarding duty cooking.
Semolina can be boiled in water, milk or water and milk mixed in any proportions. Grits in salted boiling water poured a thin stream, stirring vigorously all the time, so as not formed lumps. After that, she had to give even cook on low heat for minutes, ten. We must remember that the decoy after filling in boiling water very quickly makes as if ready look. Therefore, even very experienced travelers remove it by holding the fire just two minutes, and
porridge then turns damp.
Rice is usually prepared in two ways. You can cook the rice crisp so that one grain was separated from the other. This rice goes well with meat. You can cook the usual viscous mess, giving the rice as it should seethe. Well make a mess of sweet, well put it in prunes.
If you choose to cook crisp rice, you will have very strict on the clock to monitor the cooking time. In salted boiling water poured rice and then cook it 18-20 minutes, no more. All this time the water should be boiling, but not violently, or it may boil over before the rice is cooked. By the way, that did not happen, the water can take a lot more than was stated above — there meaning the usual mess. 2-3 minutes before the end of cooking the porridge add a bay leaf and a few peas pepper, then remove from the heat and poured all the water. Rice is ready.
To cook sticky rice porridge, rice poured into salted boiling water, bring to a boil and cook for about fifteen minutes, then drain the excess water, add milk and sugar to taste. After that you need to put more minutes to cook porridge 8-10 on low heat or on charcoal. If you need to put in a mess of prunes, you have to soak in boiling water so that it swelled. Note that if conditions permit, then the two cooking methods to brewing rice is rinsed in cold water.
Buckwheat, as well as rice, can be boiled in two ways, then it will either be in the form of friable or viscous mush. In the first case, previously little rump roast in the pan, or the bottom of a baking pan free. After that cereal grains are harder, they do not crack or fall apart during cooking. The dealer then poured salt in boiling water and cook until tender. Normally it takes 30-40 minutes. When cooking crumbly buckwheat is not necessary so vigilant on the clock, as in the preparation of loose rice. Willingness cereal determined by eye and taste. It should be noted that, if the rice is taken to loose more water than indicated on page 44, for crumbly buckwheat water should take less, namely — 2-3 cups a mug of cereal.
Viscous buckwheat cooked the same way, but it does not require pre-roasting of cereals, and the water is taken much more-7-8 cups a mug of cereal.
Feature cooking millet porridge is as follows. Millet contains fasciculi that gives it a bitter taste. Therefore, before cooking it should be thoroughly rinsed in cold, but better — in warm water, rubbing his hands in the rump. Thus, wheat is washed 3-5 times, each time pouring the water. If conditions do not allow a camp wash millet, some other better cook porridge and millet postponed to another time. When the millet thoroughly washed, his You can cook, having previously include millet pour boiling water so that the water covered his little, quickly bring to a boil and drain.
The residue of bitterness will leave from the fusion with water. After that, how to pour boiling water to settle, if necessary — add milk, sugar, and cook for 30-40 minutes.
Beginners tourists somehow neglected preliminary boiling with drain water. They believe that this procedure is very addictive process of cooking. This is incorrect. The delay can be obtained only in the event that the disposal of tourists have one single pot or bucket to the group. If there is a second dishes, the delay is almost impossible: there is one washed millet, in the second boiling water, then take out quite a bit of boiling water for wheat and topped up with this pan of cold water. By the time the water was boiling in a pot of millet and can drain the water, boil the water in the second pot, so, drain the water from the wheat, you can re-fill it with boiling water. After that, the second pan is released to make tea or coffee. Thus, the recommended way to increase the cooking time by a few minutes, but it turns out particularly tasty porridge.
Vermicelli, like rice, cooking should strictly by the hour. Her fall asleep in salty boiling water, bring to a boil and boil exactly 8 minutes and then drained. If noodles digest will gruel. There it is, of course, possible, but unlikely
this dish is delicious.
Noodles and pasta is cooked in the same way as the noodles, but they are more coarse product and is not as sensitive to the time of cooking, like vermicelli. Pasta should cook 18-20 minutes after boiling, the noodles — 15-18 minutes. Incidentally, the cardboard package in which they are usually sold in stores, the method of preparation.
All meals, about which still referred to, had to cook grits asleep in pre salted water. But with barley porridge should not do that, otherwise it will boil very long. Pearl barley before use should be washed in cold water, then pour in unsalted boiling water after boiling and cook for about forty minutes on low heat, making sure the water does not boil dry. Salted porridge when it is ready, then it should be a little hold on the fire and take off.
Similarly, peas, beans, and beans do not cook in a pre-salted water. They are already cooked for a long time — up to 3 hours. Because of their cooking time is usually used either for a day's rest, or in stationary camps, or in cases where the group disperses for assignments on radial routes, while others remain at base camp for cooking. For the rich, busy marching day peas, beans and legumes are not suitable — too much time is their cooking. However, if they soak overnight, they Brewed faster.
Many urban kids camping menu somehow associated with baked potatoes on the fire. But you do not bake the potatoes in the fire, and in hot ashes or coals, poured on it a layer on top of the ground and put a strong burnt embers. So, to bake potatoes, it is necessary to have enough ash and coal, and this fire should burn for at least an hour, or even more dry. During this time, it is possible to cook the same potatoes and generally make a full meal. Therefore, attempts to bake potatoes in the afternoon halt usually fall flat. In short, the baked potato is not for short halts.
It is best to cook it in overnight trips or late autumn, when it begins to get dark at six — the beginning of the seventh, and when there is time, not in a hurry, sit by the evening fire. By the way, for those who have never baked potatoes in the fire, it may be advisable to bake it wrapped in plastic foil.
Additional tips and tricks. Almost all the cereals, as we have seen, salt advance, before launching into boiling grits. Put salt to taste — the water may seem a little more salt than it should be, in your opinion, the porridge. However, it happens that at first the inexperienced "cooks" make blunders with salt. If the porridge turned nedosolennaya, to divorce the right amount of salt in the boiling water and pour the solution into a mess and mix thoroughly. Absorb salt thickened porridge impossible — salt does not disperse. If, however, turned salty porridge, proceed as follows. First of all, it is necessary to try many participants hike. Perhaps it is not too much overdone as it seems. If all find that too much salt, pour boiling water over cereal and stir, then drain. Porridge is not as tasty as it could be, but it will become less salty.
Sugar, if it is not put before the mess began to thicken, you must first dissolve in boiling water in a separate cup. Of course, this applies to refined sugar, not sugar.
Stir boiling over the fire eating spoon uncomfortable. Better make clean planed stirrer sticks.
Canned meat before putting into porridge or soup, should be in a separate bowl, divide the fibers. Otherwise, if someone will go hand large chunks of meat, someone did.
If by the time the mess began to thicken, in the fire of coals formed enough, better to remove it from the heat and put the coals reach. So much easier to avoid burning porridge.
Many guys, brewing tea in the campaign, poured it directly into a bucket of boiling water. This leads to increased consumption of tea in the tea leaves and makes the same drink tea all: those who like strong tea, and those who are not used to it. Better to have a group of separate small pot for brewing. Before you make the tea, it should be rinsed with hot water. Then pour the tea and add boiling water so that the water barely covered the tea leaves. You can put in there, and a piece of sugar.
Then you have to close the lid and place the pot on the coals or ashes five minutes later, then pour the boiling water and allow to infuse for another five minutes. Do not place the tea leaves of tea on the stove and boil — this can only ruin the taste of the tea.
For the production of cocoa powder it must first dissolve in warm water until thick cream, rubbed all the lumps, then pour this mixture into the boiling water and cook. Somehow this young tourists often forget and remove from heat cocoa immediately, as soon as it boils. Incorrectly, to give him ten minutes Cook on low heat and then pour the mugs. But for a long time to boil coffee should not be.
Brew it in hot water and bring to a boil, you need to immediately remove it from the heat. Incidentally, in the cocoa and coffee can put a pinch of salt — many find so tasty.
Must stress again that these are recommendations for the most part are exemplary. The main thing is to gradually accumulating experience, creatively using it depending on the purpose, duration, hike, the group, learn how to deal with all matters related to the organization the power hike.