27 Декабрь 2011 | The survival encyclopedia


Auditory adaptation

Adaptation Auditory - raising the threshold of sound perception by prolonged exposure strong sounds. The harder and longer sound, the greater the increase threshold perception. Than sound longer, the longer-term increases hearing threshold. When exposed to high-pitched sounds adaptation more pronounced than the effects of low-pitched sounds. Auditory adaptation explore during sound stimulation or after defining the value of improving the hearing threshold in decibels and duration of hearing recovery in seconds. Violation hearing adaptation is with Meniere's disease, at least in the auditory Read more [...]
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Adaptation to altitude

Adaptation to height - the adaptation of the body to the effects of altitude and climatic factors in the high mountains, in high-altitude flight and the "rise" in the chamber (see). The main physical factor is the lack of high-altitude exposure of oxygen. So adaptation body to height is primarily aimed at enhancing the work of those organs and systems that provide the transport of oxygen (cardiovascular system, blood, breath) through increased pulmonary ventilation and cardiac output, as well as increasing the number of red blood cells. The most important condition is the gradual adaptation Read more [...]
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Adaptation of the eye

Adaptation eyes - the adaptation of the different lighting conditions. Adaptation of the eye to distinguish between light and dark. Adaptation of the eye the light comes quickly and be completed within 5 minutes, adaptation of the eye to the darkness - the process is slower. Minimum brightness that causes the sensation of light, determines the light sensitivity of the eye. The latter increases rapidly in the first 30 minutes in the dark and making it more practical ends in 50 - 60 minutes. Adaptation eyes to the darkness examined by special instruments, adaptometry. Lowering the eyes adapt Read more [...]
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Eyes on the Veldt

International        I was so lost by the glaring batch of one-legged Carlos Bastos operational the manual transmitting of his Kruger-issue Toyota four-wheel-drive that I about failed to observation our transition done the wall encompassing the Backbone River By-Products Works, a low-slung edifice that looks care an plane airdock, placed not deuce-ace miles from Skukuza. Bastos, a Read more [...]
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Adaptation

Adaptation - The adaptation of animals and plants to the effects of environmental factors. Saved by adapting the optimal constant level of flow of the body's internal processes to ensure the sustainability and viability of it in this environment. Adaptation is not limited to the body as a whole, and its individual organs and various excitable tissues (nerve, muscle). Particularly clear adaptation manifested in the receptors and is expressed in the change (decrease or increase) their sensitivity to specific stimuli with fluctuations of its strength and duration of exposure (see Adaptation Read more [...]
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How to build a hut for 1 day

Dugout - is ground for household structure. The main purpose of the dugout - to fulfill the role of ordinary residential and office space in the absence of the latter to rest and stay of personnel, placing different warehouses, workshops, and other points of contact. Dug by the standards of military field creates a very comfortable environment for living, providing personnel and area of almost identical to the terms of the barracks and all vmeschaya unit at full strength. Dugouts, depending on application, may have different sizes, but the principle of construction and the materials used in Read more [...]
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Antiarrhythmics

Antiarrhythmic drugs (antiarrhythmic drugs) - substances that affect the excitability and conductivity heart muscle and thereby normalizing heart rhythm. By antiarrhythmic agents include quinidine and procainamide. Quinidine and procainamide reduces anxiety attack to slow the passage of impulses along the cardiac conduction system, in large doses, can lower heart rate and strength, and quinidine more than procainamide. Both of these tools are used for atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal tachycardia, arrhythmia. Contraindications to the use - see procainamide, quinidine. As antiarrhythmics used as Read more [...]
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Antianafilaksiya desensitization

We have said that the symptoms of anaphylactic reactions in sensitized body antigen should be introduced in sufficient quantities, and by providing rapid absorption. If we introduce a small amount of antigen, the phenomena of anaphylaxis may not occur. They do not occur with the introduction of antigen in small divided doses. This phenomenon is explained as follows: fractional introduction antigen in small doses gradually binds certain amount of precipitating antibodies and visible manifestations of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Such resistance to the introduction of a specific antigen Read more [...]
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Antibiotics

Antibiotics - microbial substances, animal or plant origin, which selectively inhibit the viability of microorganisms. Most antibiotics used in medical practice, derived from actinomycetes (ray fungi). Antibiotics are very effective in the treatment of many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, spirochetes, rickettsia, major viruses. The doctrine of antibiotics is closely linked with the problem of the antagonism of various microbial species. Currently, more than 2,000 described antibiotics studied in whole or in part the structure of more than 600, of which a number of synthesized. Read more [...]
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Antigenic conjugates of haptens

Himiosinteza success will deepen and broaden knowledge about the nature of antigens. Found that the nature of the antigenic structure varies accession to protein antigens of different chemical radicals. The concept of "hapten" or incomplete antigen, introduced Landsteiner. Hapten itself can not induce the state of sensitization. Hapten becomes antigenic properties, connected to a large protein molecule, in this case we determine the hapten epitope of this molecule. Haptens do not cause the production of antibodies in the body, but they can be combined with proteins and cause the Read more [...]
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Evaluate Approves Malibu Laguna Return

A evaluator in California has ruled against iii groups who sued to closure a controversial undertaking to fix a laguna approach Malibu's world-famous Surfrider Beach. The pro-restoration english hopes to drag a channelize that would wagerer colligate Malibu Laguna, which is poorly polluded, to the Peaceable Sea and transfer a serial of footbridges that they say living the lagune from right exhausting. In June, tercet environmental groups won an enjoining against the task, claiming that it would interrupt endangered species and dilapidation Surfrider Beach's illustrious breakout. The now-acclaimed Read more [...]
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Antisepsis

Antiseptic - a method to prevent infection of wounds and treatment of infected wounds, various purulent processes by affecting contained in the wound or tissue pathogens. Antisepsis carried out mainly by means of chemical and biological agents that are able to delay the propagation of microbes (bacteriostatic) and kill them (bactericidal). Depending on the method of application of antiseptic agents are three types of antiseptics: local - the introduction of antiseptic substances directly into the wound or purulent focus, deep - injection of an antiseptic solution in the tissue near the site of Read more [...]
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Rabies vaccines

Rabies vaccines - specific vaccine for the prevention of rabies. For the preparation of rabies vaccines by Pasteur rabies virus was subjected to repeated transplantation (passages) in rabbits. As a result of their illness begins on the 6-7th day (instead of developing the disease by 16-21-day). In further passages of this period is not shortened, as it is recorded. Hence the virus called "fixed." Fixed virus differs from the original in that it adapts to the nervous tissue of the rabbit, pretty much losing virulence for other animals. Brain rabbits died within 14 days dried over Read more [...]
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Antipyrine

Antipyrine (Antipyrinum; List B) - non-narcotic analgesic means. Has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic action. It has a moderate hemostatic effect. Used in neuralgia, myalgia, rheumatism, colds by 0.25 - 0.5 g orally 2-3 times a day. When bow and parenchymal hemorrhage given as 10-20% of the solution to soak the sponge and napkins. Higher doses: single - 1 g daily - 3 PM forms: powder and pills to 0.25 g Additional analgesics. Antipyrine (Antipirinum; synonymous. Phenazonum) - analgesic pyretic means. Also has anti-inflammatory properties, shows hemostatic effect. When pain neuralgic Read more [...]
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Downstairs Another Sky

Out-of-door        DURING THE Nighttime I arouse to discover the vocalise of pelting striking the camp. I place my headlight and smooth it on the locomote dismay approach my header: 4 a.m. Pointing the air on the belittled scrub at river's boundary, I can see that it's now inside an edge of jump its camber and flooding our camp. I recognise therein upwind I won't be able-bodied to receive the engrave. I experience my genial Read more [...]
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Anticoagulants

Anticoagulants - substances that inhibit blood clotting. On the mechanism of influence on the process of blood coagulation, they are divided into two groups: Anticoagulants direct and indirect action. To direct anticoagulant action include sodium citrate, heparin, snnantrin, to indirect anticoagulants - bishydroxycoumarin, neodikumarina, nafarin, sinkumar, fenilin omefin. Anticoagulants of direct action has a direct effect on the blood. In this regard, they can prevent it collapsing in the body, and outside (in vitro). Sodium citrate binds calcium ions, which are an essential component for the Read more [...]
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How to sharpen knife

Folding knives sharpening Any master knows that the work of the dull knife than the torment will not work. So sharpening a knife - the overriding thing, do not take the time to sharpen the blade - it is not wasted. Much longer it takes to work with a blunt instrument. For professional sharpening requires patience, a quality steel blade, bars appropriate granularity. About patience. Keep in mind, to sharpen any blade takes about an hour and a quality sharpening blade length of the breeding ideal geometric forms and able to take the 30 hours of operation. So be prepared to etomu.O steel. Hardness Read more [...]
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Antiformin

Antiformin (Antiforminum) - antiseptic, a mixture of equal amounts of 20% solution of sodium hypochlorite and 15% sodium hydroxide solution. Used in dental practice in the treatment of stomatitis and gingivitis. Assign a 10-25-50% solution for rinsing. Antiformin used in laboratories for disinfection of secretions and contaminated material. Product: Bottles of 50 ml. See also Antiseptics funds. Antiformin (Antiforminum) - liquid preparation containing equal amounts of 20% solution of sodium hypochlorite and 15% sodium hydroxide solution. Used as a disinfectant funds in dental practice, as Read more [...]
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Anthropometry

Anthropometry - one of the main methods for studying morphological (individual and group) to individual. In this case, use the measurement and descriptive attributes. Measurement known symptoms that can be expressed in numbers, descriptive - obtained by inspection, by comparing the various standards (tables and models). Anthropometry is widely used in medicine, especially in the study of the physical development of the person, as an indicator of socio-economic impact, hygiene and other factors. At the minimum program anthropometric survey measured height, weight, chest, give a description of Read more [...]
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Aorta

Aorta (aorta) - the largest human arteries. It is the beginning of the systemic circulation. In the aorta are three parts: the ascending (aorta ascendens), arc (arcus aortae) and descending (aorta descendens) (Fig. 385). Aorta refers to the arteries elastic type, in which the number of elastic fibers of the middle layer of collagen predominates. Elastic fibers in the aortic wall are formed in the plate, where the fibers are circular and longitudinal direction. Her inner membrane is thickened and contains all kinds of fibers and fibroblasts are capable of phagocytosis. With age, in different Read more [...]
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