Traffic on the river
In unfamiliar territory any river can be used as a guide or as a way of transportation, because this way provides a fairly precise route and usually brings to communities. The river can be a source of food and drinking water, and provides the possibility of movement in a boat or on a raft. In this case, your movement will be open, you may soon discover. But if necessary, be prepared to move masking river ford, go round, rising through the jungle on the banks. If you follow the river to the mountains, be guided by the waterfalls, cliffs and streams. On the plain of the river is usually more convoluted, surrounded by swamps or shrub. There is little probability to find landmarks.

Driving on the coast or along the coast
Moving along the coast — a long way round, but the beach is a good starting point for reference, and a place where you can find food and shelter.

Overcoming the dense vegetation
Move through dense jungle undergrowth and only need to down arms. This will help prevent scratches and scrapes.

In the future, avoid scratches, bruises and lose direction and confidence can, using the so-called "watchful eye." Do not focus your attention on the trees and bushes that are in front of you. His eyes fixed on, beyond what is immediately around you and do not look at the bushes, and through them. Periodically stop and stare at the ground.

Be careful, slowly and methodically work your way to dense forest or jungle, stop periodically to listen and navigate. Making his way through the brush, use a knife or cleaver, but do not break branches unnecessarily. In the forest, the noise can be heard at a great distance, it can be reduced to cut bushes blow up. You can push the bushes with a stick, but so as not to disturb the ants solenopsisov. Going up the hill, do not grab the bushes, since they may have spines or spikes.

Many wild animals of forest and jungle move along the winding and intersecting paths, which often lead to water or clearing. If possible, they should be used, or conversely, to avoid. If you use trails, you do not follow them blindly. Often bearing checking, ensure that these trails are in the right direction.

Climbed a tree for surveillance or harvest the fruit for food, stay close to the trunk, as the branches are stronger.

Power Lines
In many countries, electric and telephone lines for many miles pass through a sparsely populated area. Usually move in such places can be quite freely, using cuttings cleared for these lines. However, care should be taken to avoid possible injury or complications associated with electrocution.

The transition to snow fields and glaciers
The fastest way to the descent on a steep slope covered with snow, it's descent on foot with ax or strong pole (length of about 1.5 m) as support. Hatchet or sixth, you can also determine the presence of fissures (cracks in the ice).

As a rule, there are fissures at right angles to the direction of the glacier. You can usually get around because they rarely cross the entire glacier. If the ice is covered with snow, you have to be especially careful. If you move a group, in this case, all the members should go in tandem. If possible, avoid ice and areas with large fissures.

Movement on a steep slope covered with snow, is easier if crossing it diagonally, trampling down the stairs. However, beware of landslides, especially during the spring thaw or after a snowfall. Moving to a place where there is a danger of landslides, stay away from the slope, and if it is necessary to cross, go as high as possible. Going up the slope, straight. Once in the avalanche, make swimming motions to stay on the surface.

In passing through the snow fields in the mountains should be wary of overhanging ledges of snow downwind. These cornice of snow will not stand you, you can usually see on the leeward side, while on the windward side, you can see only slightly rounded, the snow-covered ridge. Move along the ridge on the windward side below the cornice.

Crossing the river
In all cases, except for the movement in the desert, there is always a chance that you will have to cross a river or water barriers. Water hazard may be from a small flowing creek through the valley to ankle-deep rapid river, which originates from a glacier or permanent snow fields. One who knows how to overcome such obstacles, can successfully navigate the most turbulent rivers.

Before entering the river, determine the temperature of the water in it. If the water is very cold and there is a small ford, then you should not attempt to cross the river to wade, as cold water can easily cause a shock-like state, which sometimes leads to a temporary paralysis. In the absence of Wade try to make impromptu crossing, knocking a tree into a river or building a simple raft.

Before trying to cross the river and climb to a high place and find out:

    character of the river and the place where it may split into sleeves is there any obstacles on the other side that could interfere with movement. Mark the spot on the opposite bank, where the go easier and safer, there are no reefs in the river, indicating the presence of rapids and canyons, there are no dense vegetation, which indicates that the deepest part of the river.

When choosing a location crossing remember the following:

    should identify the crossing angle of about 45 ° to the flow of the river, do not try to cross the river just above the deep or rapid places or close to, always cross the river, where, if you fall, you will make on the sloping bank or a bank, try to avoid rocky places, as a fall may cause serious injury, but the single stone in the river may, on the contrary, to help you get over it.

Ways of crossing the river
Wade. Before entering the water, take off your shoes and socks, and then put on your boots. Do not risk: you can hurt your feet on sharp rocks or sticks. As support, use sturdy pole. Keep it directed against the tide in order to break up the flow. Six assists also more confident to walk on the floor and can be used to check the bottom of the river in order to detect cavities and holes.

Overcoming the river swim. Swim breaststroke on the back or the side. These processes swimming movements silent, less tedious than other methods, and, in addition, you can smuggle a small knot with clothing or equipment. If possible, remove the clothing and equipment and perepravte them across the river on a raft. Go wade until the water will not get you on the chest, then swim. If the river is too steep and the river is deep, you go into it slowly so as not to step on a snag and fall, tripping over obstacles in the water. In the deep places with fast flowing river swim diagonally downstream. If you need a disguise, use the branches of bushes.

If you can not swim, you have the opportunity to cross the river, using the materials at hand. They are:

Clothing. Remove the pants in the water, tie a knot and fasten each leg pants, trousers take the belt with one hand and wave your well by them, raised above his head forward and down so that they are part of an open lap plopped heavily on water. Each leg will fall air. If in a situation where you're located, the noise does not matter, jump into the water, keeping the pants in front of him.

Cylinder of polyethylene film. This flotation device made from a roll of plastic film, rolled in two layers. Ends together and fixed with a rubber tourniquet. Air is pumped through a metal fitting. The same bottle can be made from rubberized fabric, nylon parachute.

Logs or boards. Before you use the wooden objects to cross the river, check their buoyancy. This is particularly important in the tropics, because most of the trees in the tropics, especially palm trees, drowning, even when the tree is dry.

With rafting. Crossing the river on a raft is the most ancient and often safest and fastest way to overcome water obstacles. However, the construction of the raft in the fight for survival is very tedious work, requiring a lot of time, especially if there is no appropriate tools and assistance. Rafts can be made from dead trees, bamboo or shrub.

Best rafts made from spruce. The raft can be constructed without nails and ropes, if you have an ax and a knife.

Remember that for three-person liferaft shall be 3.6 m long and 1.8 m wide.

Build a raft for two triggers logs set obliquely to the shore. Obteshite logs ax to other logs, which will consist of dense, smooth lying to them.

Knock out two offset groove on both sides of each log at both ends (Fig. 7).

FIG. 7. The construction of the raft of logs

The grooves are made of triangular shape, broad at the base.

To seal a log raft, skip through each slot triangular cross member whose length is about 30 cm longer than the width of the raft. Raft of logs joined first one side, then the other.

Secure (tie) with the protruding ends of the two crossbars at each end of the raft, to provide additional strength. When the raft into the water, cross swell, tying logs firmly together.

If the cross is too loose sit in grooves, they should be wedged thin slices of dry wood. They swell when wet, and thus consolidate the cross.

Even with this kind of ax work requires skill and time consuming. For a quick and easy way — is the use of "compressing beams", which bind to both ends and keep a log raft (Fig. 8).

FIG. 8. The construction of the raft method "compressing beams"

Good solid density can be made of bamboo. Bamboo is light, resilient and easy to cut.

It is easy to make a great raft of canvas, cloth small tents or other waterproof material, erecting the frame of the branches of bushes.

In northern winter, the middle of the river can not freeze due to the rapid flow. To cross a river on the ice can be, using it as a raft, after splitting off the ice floe with an ax or a pole (if there is a crack in the ice) from the shore ice. The size of the raft should be about 2×3 m To move through the open part of the river using a pole.

Overcoming rapids or fast flowing rivers. Cross the river in places rapids or fast flow is not as difficult as it may seem. On small rapids lie on your back so that the legs were directed downstream body lay horizontally, hands on hips. Hands to do the movement, just as his running seal flippers. At deep rapids swim on his stomach, trying to hit the beach whenever possible. Watch for places where streams converge: you can drag the dangerous whirlpools that they form.

Cross on a raft through a deep and rapid river advisable to bend, using the force flow and tied the raft at an angle on the type of kite (Fig. 9).

FIG. 9. Crossing the river on a bend: 1 — flow direction, and 2 — the power flow

Use this method when forwarded by several people. In this case, consider the following:

density should be attached at an angle to the flow, the length of the rope from its fixing to be 7-8 times greater than the width of the river, the rope should be attached to the raft so as to be able to adjust its length and change the angle of attachment to the raft so that when You can come back to the first bank.

Overcoming the surf. When approaching the shore the waves become higher and shorter. Part of the wave, facing the beach, bent and broken, throwing water on the shore. Big waves breaking on the shore.

With moderate surf swim forward with small waves (wave crest raise your body), and after the crest of the wave, and the wave was still not broken, dive down.

With strong surf swim to shore in between the waves. When the next wave comes, face it, dive, then turn to the shore and swim to it when the wave passed.

If the waves are big, the reverse flow of the upcoming wave can be dangerous. If you get into the flow, do not try to swim against it. Swim with it. If you get under it, go up to the surface and move to the shore on the crest of the next wave.

Overcoming quicksand, bogs, marshes. These obstacles are the most common in the tropics and subtropics. On the bog there is no vegetation on it usually can not hold even a stone. If you can not get around this, try to build the crossing, using logs, branches or foliage. If you do not have none of the above, force the obstacle as follows: lie face down, his arms spread out and start to swim or wade through the mire forward, keeping the body horizontally. In the same way it is possible to overcome the quicksand.

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