External oblique muscle of abdomen (M. obliquus abdominis externus) steam and wide. Teeth starts from 8 lower ribs on the side of the chest. The teeth of external oblique abdominal muscles alternate with the teeth m. serratus anterior (see Fig. 166). Muscle fibers are directed forward and down. Starting from 4-12 ribs. The teeth on the edge of moving muscles rectus muscle aponeurosis and muscle teeth starting from VII-XII edges alternate with large teeth and the back muscles are attached to the outer line of the iliac crest. Lower edge of the aponeurosis of external oblique muscle of the stomach from spina iliaca anterior superior iliac continues to tuberculum pubicum pubic bone, forming the inguinal ligament (lig. inguinale).
166. Superficial muscles of the neck, chest and abdomen.
1 — m. digastricus; 2 — m. mylohyoideus; 3 — m. platysma; 5 — m. sternocleidomastoideus; 4 — m. sternohyoideus; 6 — m. sternohyoideus; 7 — m. deltoideus; 8 — m. pectoralis major; 9 — m. obliquus abdominis externus; 10 — vagina m. recti abdominis; 11 — crus mediate; 12 — funiculus spermaticus; 13 — crus laterale; 14 — m. obliquus abdominis internus; 15 — m. serratus anterior (cut) 16 — m. pectoralis minor.
Innervation: nn. intercostales (ThV-VII), n. lumbalis (LI).
Function. When bilateral reduction flexes the spine, with unilateral — rotates the torso in the opposite direction. In cases where the lower limbs are not the way, raises the pelvis.
Internal oblique (M. obliquus abdominis internus) pair, is deeper than the previous, and the second layer is on the side of the abdomen (see Fig. 165). It covers an area slightly smaller than the external oblique abdominal muscles. It starts from the linea intermedia cristae iliacae, the lateral two thirds the inguinal ligament, and the superficial leaf f. lumbodorsalis. Muscle bundles are oriented upward and forward, ie, perpendicular beams crisscross the preceding muscle. Rear beam internal oblique muscles are attached to XII — IX edges and the middle and lower — are sent to the midline of the abdomen. At the outer edge of m. rectus abdominis tendon is divided into two sheets. Front sheet completely covers the front surface of the direct abdominal muscles, where the tendon heals external oblique abdominal muscles. Rear leaf is behind the rectus muscle just above the line connecting the front ends of the ribs IX. Below this line all the tendon of the internal oblique muscle lies ahead rectus abdominis muscle.
165. Muscles of the chest and abdomen (by R. Sinel'nikov).
1 — m. stylohyoideus; 2 — m. digastricus; 3 — m. scalenus anterior; 4 — m. scalenus medius; 5 — m. scalenus posterior; 6 — m. serratus anterior; 7 — mm. intercostales interni; 8 — mm. intercostales externi; 9 — m. obliquus abdominis internus; 10 — m. gluteus medius; 11 — m. obturatorius internus; 12 — m. piriformis; 13 — m. latissimus dorsi; 14 — m. teres major; 15 — m. subscapularis; 16 — m. levator scapulae; 17 — m. splenius capitis.
Innervation: n. intercostalis, n. iliohypogastricus, n. ilioinguinalis (ThVII-XIII, LI-II).
Function. When bilateral reduction rear beam flexes the spine, down the lower ribs. When a unilateral reduction in turn makes the body in his own way. When free the legs raises the pelvis. Middle and lower muscle bundles tensioned tendon anterior wall of the rectus sheath.
Transversus abdominis muscle (M. transversus abdominis) pair, is the third layer of the lateral abdominal muscles (Fig. 169). Upper beams start from the inside of VII — XII edges. Her upper teeth alternate with muscle bundles costal part of the diaphragm, the average go from lig. lumbocostale, the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and deep leaf f. thoracolumbalis, lower — from labium internum cristae iliacae and the lateral third of the inguinal ligament. Her lower edge coincides with the edge of the preceding muscle.
All muscle bundles arranged transversely in the horizontal plane. At the edge of the line abs muscle changes in the tendon, which in linea semicircularis, located below the navel rings at 4-5 cm, spreading to the front wall of the vagina and direct muscle tendon fused with the external and internal obliques. Above this line tendon transverse muscles completely involved in the formation of the back wall of the rectus sheath.
Innervation: nn. intercostales (ThVII-XII), n. iliohypogastricus, n. ilioinguinalis (LI-III).
Function. Bilateral reduction of muscle bundles putting pressure on the internal organs — as a result increases abdominal pressure, which helps keep organs in place. Increased intra-abdominal pressure is also important for vomiting, defecation, urination, and childbirth.