A man whose work is closely related to nature, usually of particular visual acuity of observation and memory, learns to detect invisible to other features of the surroundings. Signs by which he reads Nature, called tracks, and the man himself — a tracker.
Techniques sledopytstva fluent in taiga hunters, desert shepherds, herders, guards.
The doctrine of the tracks is called trassologii (from the French word «trace» — trail) And examines the origin of the various signs and change them from various causes, the rules of discovery and exploration.
Trassologiya distinguishes three groups as follows: bulk traces — prints, cuts, holes, surface traces — prints and delamination occurring due to accident, volume and surface marks that are the result of chemical and thermal stresses due to the capacity of contacting subjects react (eg long standing on the matter, leaving a hot iron on it its shape.)
Footprints give evidence of the human gait. A man passes the characteristics of their individual gait defects shoes: one twist heels, another rubs socks, third pronashivaet mid soles, etc.
Traces of bare feet can determine the approximate height of a man, as the length of the foot is approximately lh human growth. On the trail of bare feet can detect special features specific to the man: corn, tripe, flat feet, etc.
With a clear imprint on the ground, footprints can give an idea about the characteristic traits of gait. These symptoms are so-called track trails.
If the centers are connected in five tracks, you get a broken line, called the line of walk, or gait.
The step size depends on the growth of man, his age, walking speed, the load he carries, etc. For elderly gait characterized by small shuffling steps. The children, along with a small foot print step length much shorter step adult.
Distance measured between the centers of the heels of one print to the next is called the step length. Its average width, fluctuating between 6-12 cm, is determined by the distance between the tracks of both legs.
When a person is, we obtain the following, deeply embedded in the heel.
When walking, people consistently leave heel marks, bottom part and socks, as if rolling with heels on socks. When running the prints are only a small part of the foot, usually the nose.
Defining the time streaks, one must take into account a variety of side information: degree of hardening of the traces on the damp ground, the degree of drying of painted signs, when a shower of rain or snow fall, etc.
By studying the footprints of man, you can in some cases to draw important conclusions about the direction and speed of the man, his physical condition (left-handed or not). If a person is not left-handed, the right- step He has long left, and the angle and width of the right-left step less, and conversely, if a man — left-handed. A lot of manual labor, such as in mechanics, carpenters, joiners, and others, can be a so-called cross-hairs, when more developed, the right arm and left leg (or left arm and right leg). About disproportionate addition of man and his physical disability can be judged by the length of the pitch, in the accompanying prints footprints (tracks sticks, crutches, laces, etc.). Features gait can be identified by the difference in the length of the left and right steps.
The next person may be masked when one goes strictly on the trail of another, and when out of the forest and enter it in the rain, hoping that the track will be washed away, or during a snowfall with the expectation that the track will be filled up, when they go on a hard rocky soil, where almost no traces remain.
An example of a skillful reading of the following can serve as a story Arsenyev:
"We were walking slowly with Popov skiing and talking among themselves. I was carrying our route on the tablet, but he was indifferent while deer crossed the road is not any traces. Popov then stopped, looked at them and said:
— Two people were — one tall, young, and the other — a short and old.
Indeed, traces of a-and human. Someone walking on snow without skis, one pedestrian parted the knees snow, while the other walked right through the drifts. Step second was confident and strong. Little more people come on the heels, as do the elderly, and often rested.
— It's Russian, — said Popov. — Both in Boots (Evenki wear shoes without heels, with soft soles).
Soon, he stopped again and added:
— I was holding a small stick. He carried a rifle on a strap over his left shoulder, and then threw it over the other shoulder.
— Why not? — I asked in surprise.
Instead of answering, Popov pointed me to the tracks. Where the low man stumbled between tussocks, butt of his gun made a mark in the snow. First, these marks were on the right side, and then began to appear on the left.
Little further Popov raised crust of white bread, for which he concluded that there is nearby cabin, where you can bake bread sour. The one who is far away in the mountains, brings only crumbs.
We both looked carefully traces. At one point, the snow was trampled. I knew only that unknown people are resting, and one of them stood, and other sitting in the snow.
— One man smoke, and the other is not, — said Popov, pointing to the snow. — Here was a large man and roll a cigarette. He spilled a little bit of tobacco, and one that is growing smaller, waiting for his friend lit a cigarette. They had wiped boxes, and they spoiled a lot of matches. Then the big man held out a small hand and helped her to her feet.
Indeed, the snow has been seen that a small man, standing up, do not turn to the side, which, rising, he firmly put his feet and pressed his deep snow heels … "*
From the descriptions of the many journeys we know that people in low-light conditions, with a difficult orienteering, walking without a compass in a snowstorm or in the fog, usually describe arcs, spirals, circles, assuming that that they go in a straight line. It is also very difficult to row to the sea in a straight line at night or in fog.
In Venice, St. Mark's Square has been done an interesting experience. People were blindfolded, put them at a distance 175 m against the cathedral and offered to come to his front width of 82 meters all subjected to test slope at both sides of the line and to the cathedral is not reached.
Polar explorers say that when visibility is poor animals harnessed to the sleigh, blinded birds hunted animal to circle.
The inability of humans and animals to keep the forward direction in conditions of poor visibility due to an unbalanced structure of bodies. Man makes one foot larger steps than the other, the boatman rowing with one hand is stronger because of the development of different muscles. Animals unequal steps, and the birds unequal power flapping wings to put them aside.
In many cases, analyzing traces left by man, an experienced observer can reconstruct the history of past events and to come to conclusions that the uninitiated may seem almost a "miracle." Here is one told by Arsenyev-evym examples skilful analysis of small features:
"On the way we met a few empty zverovyh huts. In them I saw only what would have noticed every other observer, but Dersu saw much more. For example, examining the skin, he said that the man had a knife and that he was stupid when cut them by one edge had teeth. Squirrel pelt thrown trappers, told him that the animal was crushed log. In the third place Dersu saw that there were many fanze mice and owner war waged without mercy to them, etc. "
Great practical interest are horse trails.
From savvy horse hoof prints are in the form of all forms of horse shoes, track, cap nails or spikes. Horseshoes are produced in standard sizes of factory mode of production and different — for handicraft making them. Spines form is square, round, conical, with the letter "H".
Hoofprints horses in some cases can determine the physical characteristics and to establish gaits: walk, trot or gallop (Fig. 71).
The study of animal tracks helps a person to hunt, to observe the habits of game, accumulating data on the fauna. In Fig. 72 and 73 are some of the forms of animal footprints.
Important role in guiding playing prints left by the various modes of transport. The vast majority of trackless transport leaves tracks on which you can set the direction of movement and speed, view transport and its brand.
On the direction of traffic and it is judged by the speed at the bottom of a funnel-shaped swirl
footprint, sharp corners pointing towards the movement. Dust, sand and dirt fall on both sides of the track in the shape of a fan, as it were disclosed in the opposite direction from the direction of motion. When moving through a puddle drying marks, as well as the location of spray observed in the direction of motion. Crushed ends of branches, twigs, straw face always toward repetition of transport. In ruts formed by the wheels, the dust settles in the form of saw teeth pointing upward turn. If the wheels on the road crossed some colored powder or liquid, the direction of movement can be determined by gradually weakening color traces.
In order to determine the footsteps of transport, it is necessary to know
their classification on the device chassis. According to this feature, they are divided into uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial. On each axis can be one, two or four-wheel drive (slope). Most vehicles leaving a trail of tracks, consisting of two bands, which can be single when the rear tire encounters on the trail of the front, a double with two wheels on the rear axle and cloven imprinting at separate tracks front and rear wheels.
Tread patterns can be divided into three main types: universal for passenger vehicles operating in an urban environment (road, asphalt), figure-road tires (ATV) for vehicles operating in off-road and on soft ground; yuzhnoavtostradny — a kind of universal patterns.