Herbaceous perennials, biennials or annuals 10-150 cm tall. Distribution: European part (except the north), the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia.
Contain seskviterpeioidy to 3.7% in fruit (including sesquiterpene lactones), and tri-terpenoids to 0.5% in oversight. Part C. squarrosa Willd, flavonoids (including anthocyanins to 4.8% in the flowers of C. depressa M. Bieb.), coumarins to 0.5% and to 0.3% karotinondy in oversight. Part C. depressa, fi-tosteriny, carbohydrates to 8.4% in the flowers of C. solstitialis L., tsiklitoly, acyclic and heterocyclic poliatsetilenovye Comm., polynuclear aromatic Comm., cyanogenic Comm., and aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols (Tesevic et al ., 1994), phenolic acids and their derivatives are an established structure. Highlighted the essential oil to 0.2% and tannin to 3.3% of the flowers of C. solstitialis, fatty oil to 28.2% of the seeds C. cyanus L., rubber to 0.9% of oversight. CS ruthenica Lam. Alkaloids found to 0.3% in the leaves of C. diffusa Lam., Saponin 0.8% in inflorescences C. iberica Trev. ex Spreng., pectin, vitamin C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action of some EU-diureticheskoe1-flowers S. cyanus (Гос. registry. 2000), pp. jacea L., C. scabiosa L., Subtitle. hours, leaves, fruits C. iberica, protivovospalitelnoe2 — flowers C. cyanus (Гос. registry. 2000), C. scabiosa, choleretic — flowers C. cyanus (Гос. registry. 2000), astringent — C. scabiosa, Subtitle. CS solstitialis, laxative — flowers C. cyanus, juice-gonnoe — Subtitle. CS solstitialis, flowers C. cyanus, sedative — C. scabiosa, wound healing — oversight. Part C. cyanus, tonic, analgesic — flowers, lactogenic — C. cyanus, obstetrical (in veterinary medicine) — flowers C. depressa. Indications — symptoms and syndromes: edema of renal and cardiac origin — flowers of C. cyanus (Mashkovsky, 2000), ascites — C. scabiosa, Subtitle. CS iberica, fevers — S. biebersteinii DC, C. scabiosa, Hopes. Part C. depressa (Singh, Kapahi, Srivastava, 1996), underground. CS jacea, flowers C. solstitialis, C. cyanus, anorexia — flowers of C. cyanus; kidney and urinary tract: nephrolithiasis, kidney and urinary tract — flowers (complete) C. cyanus; disease of the reproductive system : in women's diseases — flowers, amenorrhea — Hopes. CS jacea, menorrhagia — C. scabiosa, late toxicosis pregnant — flowers of C. cyanus; diseases of the digestive system: diarrhea — S. biebersteinii, C. orientalis L., S. ruthenica, S. salicifolia M. Bieb. in Willd., jaundice — flowers of C. depressa, C. cyanus, Hopes. CS jacea, diseases of the stomach — Hopes. hours, dyspepsia, cholangitis — flowers C. cyanus, liver, bile ducts — flowers C. cyanus, prolapse of the rectum (in veterinary medicine) — flowers C. cyanus; infections / infestations: in malaria — leaves C. iberica, Hopes. CS scabiosa, furious — Hopes. CS jacea, S. trinervia Stephan in Willd., gepatitah1 — C. scabiosa, herpes in children — fruit C. solstitialis (Fujita et al., 1995), and mental illness: for depression, neurasthenia — flowers of C. depressa; cardio-vascular system in diseases serdtsa2 — flowers S. jacea, stroke — Hopes. CS scabiosa, C. sibirica L., angina, hypertension — S. sibiri-ca, flowers (complete) C. cyanus; diseases of the nervous system: the epilepsii3 — Hopes. CS scabiosa, C. sibirica, asthenia — flowers C. cyanus, sciatica — C. scabiosa, flowers C. cyanus; pain: for headache — C. scabiosa, C. depressa (Singh, Kapahi, Srivastava., 1996), oversight. hours, flowers, C. cyanus, flowers S. jacea, Gast-ralgii — flowers S. jacea, C. scabiosa, C. cyanus, Hopes. Part C. depressa (Singh, Kapahi, Srivastava, 1996), diseases of the immune system: the allergy — C. scabiosa, allergic dermatosis in children — flowers (complete) C. cyanus, rheumatism — flowers S. jacea; musculoskeletal diseases motor system: with arthritis — flowers C. cyanus; injury: tensile muscles, tendons — Hopes. CS jacea, flowers C. cyanus; diseases of the skin and subcutaneous fat: with diathesis and eczema in children, Medicine — flowers S. jacea, skin diseases — flowers C. cyanus, neurodermatitis (aggravated asthma) — flowers (in assembly) C. cyanus, boils, dermatitis, rashes — C. scabiosa, scrofula — Hopes. CS scabiosa, C. cyanus; eye disease: conjunctivitis, blepharitis — flowers C. cyanus, diseases of the eye — the flowers C. depressa, C. cyanus, eye fatigue — C. cyanus; respiratory system: respiratory infections , bronchitis (including asthmatic) — flowers, ear, nose and throat: laryngitis, tonsillitis — flowers; poisoning: insect bites — flowers of C. cyanus.
In the experiment, C. solstitialis stimulates breathing, tone smooth muscles, C. diffusa and C. jacea, extract oversight. Part C. cyanus have the country-beticheskimi properties; infusion of flowers of C. cyanus has antigipoksiches-some action and mixed hypoxic hypoxia S. biebersteinii, C. cyanus, C. diffusa, C. orientalis, C. ruthenica, S. salicifolia , C. solstitialis, C. squarrosa, Hopes. CS iberica, leaves, flowers, S. phrygia L., Hopes. CS pseudomaculosa Dob-rocz., total sesquiterpenoids oversight. Part C. depressa, ether extract and essential oil of C. jacea exhibit antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, oversight. CS phrygia, S. salicifolia — antiamebnuyu, oversight. CS salicifolia antitrihomonadnuyu; antioxidant properties has an alcohol extract of C. scabiosa.
Toxicity. Toxic: C. diffusa Lam., For cows and horses C. cyanus.
Food. Edible: fruit (fatty oil) S. ruthenica.
Stern. For large and small cattle: C. dealbata Willd., S. diffusa1, S. jacea, C. orientalis, C. ruthenica, C. scabiosa, home and upland birds: S. phrygia, C. scabiosa, C. sibirica, Bison: S. salicifolia, C. squarrosa, suitable for silage: S. iberica.
Melliferous. C. depressa, C. cyanus, C. diffusa, C. sibirica, C. jacea, S. phrygia, S. pseudomaculosa, S. ruthenica, C. scabiosa; nectar S. jacea in the Moscow region — 134 kg / ha.
Materials. Dyeing for cotton (yellow): Hopes. CS jacea, C. scabiosa, tissue (blue): The juice of flowers C. cyanus; source of technical oil (fatty oil) fruits C. cyanus.
Environmental significance. Peskozakreplyayuschee and pochvoukreplyayuschee: S. pseudomaculosa; decorative: S. cheiranthifolia Willd., C. cyanus, C. dealbata Willd., S. declinata, C. depressa, S. jacea, C. orientalis, C. phrygia, S. ruthenica, S. salonitana Vis., S. sibirica.