Disaster in the world's oceans can occur for various reasons. This collision of vessels, and hit the reef, and the result is a severe storm or typhoon. This can happen during a fire in a collision with a stray mines during World War II. Modern maritime statistics relentless — every half hour SOS alarm sounds every day and killed at least one vessel.
But it happens that over the vast ocean distress and airliners. In this case, the passengers of the aircraft have very little time to leave the cabin, as the aircraft afloat from 10 to 25 minutes, depending on the design and type of aircraft.
The behavior of people in a shipwreck or an emergency landing of an aircraft on water detail in Part 1. But, after the people have left the scene of an accident or disaster, a no less important and complicated period. Is of great importance in each case:
the crash (in the open sea, near the coast, etc.), the time of day (day, night);
status of the water surface (no wind, heavy weather, wave height, wind speed);
kind of rescue equipment (inflatable life raft, boat, wooden ship, only life jackets), the complete absence of any kind of rescue equipment.
In the latter case, the problem is quite acute survival and depends on many factors, in particular, such as:
time of day (night, day) away from the coast, the state of the sea, the water temperature, the presence of injuries, psychological state and the threat of shark attacks.
All these factors determine the terms of human survival in an emergency situation arose. Of these, the first three are directly related to the ability to quickly detect rescue people in the water.
In an emergency, if saving appliances and their proper use is necessary in the first place:
pick up all those who survived and is out of the appliance;
away to a safe distance (200-300 m) from a sinking ship, with the presence of navigational instruments and maps most closely to determine their location, or in their absence to determine its approximate location on the following grounds: the route of the ship, the journey from the last known point (parking or landing), and time, the direction north-south. This will help determine the direction of the nearest land or, in the presence of communication, to communicate their approximate coordinates of the Coast Guard, rescue vessels and aircraft going to help;
In the absence of communication and the need to move independently in the direction of the nearest land is desirable to remember what are the main ocean currents in the area of the oceans, and trust them, hoping that the intensity and direction of the commercial and passenger vessels are connected with major ocean currents of the World Ocean;
Having decided to cruise independently, you should know there is water and food, and to distribute them evenly on the greatest possible number of days autonomously. However, the daily amount of water should not be less than 0.5 liters per person.
During the autonomous navigation for established rescue vehicles (boat, inflatable life-raft) to determine if there is onboard signal means: rocket, signal cartridges, hand flares, signaling mirror, coloring powder (fluorescein, uraninite, etc.).
Using the signal means is made only when it is really necessary, as follows:
night use of flares, as they are clearly visible at this time of the day at the distance of 18 km;
Day missiles can be used when passing ship is within the line of sight at a distance of 3 — 5 km;
signaling mirror in the sun is very effective, because they created a sunbeam visible from the side of the ship passing at a distance of 20 km, and from the plane — more than 30 km, a coloring powder, soluble in water, the sea surface generates a large bright patch of green. This spot can be clearly seen from an altitude of 2-3 km and helps you quickly locate and rescue tool. To use the coloring powder packet in which it is located, should be released from a waterproof shell, dipped in water and tied to board survival craft.
However, be aware that:
flares, ammunition and flares with care, as they can burn the tissue raft or injure a person. They always use the leeward side of the water, holding at arm's length, color spot, created on the surface of the water coloring powder, in calm weather lasts up to three hours, and during high winds or waves disappear for 15-30 minutes.
Sustenance in autonomous navigation in the ocean, as mentioned earlier, depends on many factors. Especially dangerous is:
in a hot climate — overheating of the body due to direct solar radiation associated with the highly reflective surface of the water, and heating the rubber raft tissue, which can lead to rapid dehydration of the body;
in cold climates (for autonomous navigation on the rescue vehicle in the northern or the southern part of the World Ocean) — is chill, muscle cramps stomach and legs from prolonged use of life-saving equipment on the forced posture, motion sickness;
the plague of the sea water corrosion, eye disease;
lack of drinking water, lack of food, nerve disorders, shark attack.
Struggle with overheating is the constant cooling sea water body. It's enough to occasionally wet with sea water clothes since evaporates, it will assume the function of sweat. But in no case can not take off her clothes — it will not only sunburn, but also to more perspiration and thus dehydration.
Hypothermia body is not only the low-temperature air and water, but also because of the cold wind, wet clothes and a lack of active muscle activity. Therefore, from time to time to warm up, performing a variety of exercises for the muscles of the legs, arms, abdomen, and their active massage when a seizure. Good help and active rowing oars (if they are on the rescue vehicle). Absolutely can not take alcohol because it produces only an apparent warming of the body.
Those who are in the disaster at sea was in cold water, you need to remember a few rules that will help slow the chill:
1. While in the water, his head should be kept as high as possible, since the maximum heat loss from the body falls on her.
2. Keep your body in the water with a minimum of physical effort;
3. Actively swim to the life saving, or to the bank only if it takes no more than 30-40 minutes. This is due to the fact that people can be in cold water with a temperature of +4 ° C, about 1 hour.
4. Upon reaching the survival craft or shore immediately undress and squeeze wet clothes, and then warm up by any means possible (to change into dry clothes, wrapped in a parachute tent, sleeping bag, or if it's on the beach, build a fire.)
Motion sickness — this is another serious risk that occurs when autonomous navigation on the rescue vehicle. The reaction of the human organism to motion sickness, or as it is called, motion sickness is twofold. In one case, nausea, vomiting, cold sweats and severe salivation. All this is accompanied by dizziness, severe headaches, heart disorders. In another — reduced efficiency, somnolence and lethargy.
All this helps to not only discomfort and apathy of everything, but to rapid dehydration by increasing perspiration. Additionally, vomit, fall overboard, can attract sharks.
In the absence of such medications as Aerovit, piradoksin or pyridoxal, at the first onset of symptoms to motion sickness:
to the horizontal position of the body, slightly tilt the head;
commit themselves to the fixed points of the horizon (eg, clouds or distant waves);
at raising funds for the rescue curler for deep rhythmic breaths 10-12 times a minute.
Direct or reflected from the surface of the sea the sun's rays can cause redness of the eyes and excessive tearing. To avoid or at least reduce the pain, can be applied to the eyes cold water compresses.
The big problem for autonomous navigation in the ocean is the lack or absence of potable water. Of course, if the regular saving means a portable solar still desalination or chemical, then this problem can be solved quite easily. But, unfortunately, most often either one or the other may not be. In such cases, it is recommended to quench your thirst:
at night to collect the dew;
restock the water by rain (especially abundant and often falls in the tropics), use water instead of fish juice;
in the most critical situations, some authors Survival Guide Sea is possible to use a limited amount of drinking sea water. But at the same time, numerous studies have shown that the use of sea water often leads to death. So those are cases when caught in an extreme situation at sea survived due to the fact that drinking salt water, still can not serve as proof of the possibility of its use.
The possibility of replenishment of food in the seas and oceans are large enough. For food you can eat most fish, many of which can be eaten raw.
You can catch fish fishing equipment, available on the rescue vehicle, or build them from scrap materials. Instead of fishing line to use the parachute straps, shoelaces, thick strands of flowing fabrics (canvas, tarpaulin, tents, etc.), use the icons instead of hooks, pins, buttons, jail can be made from a knife tied to an oar. If there is a mosquito net, it can be used to collect plankton. Some fish do appear on your desktop — so-called flying fish. They are found in large quantities in the tropics. Often jumping out of the water and flying from a few dozen to a few hundred meters, flying fish fall right into the boat or raft. At night, they often attract a lantern or a white sail.
When catching fish, remember safety measures:
never reel fishing line on hand, do not fix fishing line the sides of the appliance; monitor so as not to damage the hook or spear rubber shell liferaft.
Tasty meat has giant jellyfish Aurelia. Weight of individual items sometimes reaches 10 kg. But no less valuable food in the ocean can serve as cephalopods — squid, inhabiting almost all the world's oceans, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. You can catch squid in the light of the lamp directly from the boat or raft for several related baited hooks of small fish or fish innards.
Even as food can serve as plankton. Fairly unappetizing-looking brown-green mass is actually quite delicious and reminiscent of a mixture of algae with shrimp. However, prolonged use of the plankton is not harmless to the human body, because it contains microscopic marine silnoyadovitye zhgutikonosy dinoflagellates. Poisoning can occur in 10 — 15 minutes, with severe consequences, up to the paralysis of the limbs. Self poisoning is accompanied by severe vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness and general weakness.
Pretty easy prey may be some species of birds found in the ocean sometimes thousands of miles away from the coast. One of them — the albatross. This large feathered predator clock turns on the waves in search of prey. Bait in the form of small fish mounted on a large hook, albatross see from a distance and not enough thinking.
Before you eat meat albatross food must remove the skin with feathers and must remove the entire layer of subcutaneous fat, gives the meat an unpleasant taste and odor.
Fatigue associated with severe conditions of autonomous existence, exhaustion from lack of food and water often lead to nervous disorders. A person or a whole group of people in the ocean, occur or irritability, often turning into aggression toward fellow sufferers, or complete depression. The best means of both — is to take yourself a job, but not forgetting the proper rest and sleep.
Another major problem faced by people in the ocean — a threat to shark attacks. Of course, the greatest danger lies in wait for those who are directly in the water, not in survival craft. It most often occurs in the time of the accident, when there is blood in the water and wounded various products of the human excreta (urine, feces, vomit), which attracts sharks.
With the threat of shark attack on a person in the water, it is recommended:
Shark scare sharp dummy in her direction; roll in the opposite direction of the shark;
Shark scare strong slamming his hands on the water, in the immediate vicinity of inflicting heavy blows with hands or feet (if there is, and a knife), and if possible, a firm grip on the side fins and swim in that position with the shark some distance.
If the shark appeared near survival craft (boats, rafts, wreck), you must:
move away from the edge of the appliance;
not jettison food debris;
Do not clean the fish and do not throw in the water of its interior;
strike oars or anything else on her head and gills, but so that most do not fall into the water or turn the survival craft sharp movements.