During long trips submarines we have noticed that for 2-3 days before the sailing sailors became fussy, emotionally strained. They all thought that over time has slowed. There was a hurry as fast as possible to get to the shore. Emotional tension during the final period of the job and can clearly be seen in astronauts during the flight. V. Sevastyanov recalls that a few days before returning to Earth "originated something on the brain all, most would end the flight, would rather have on the Earth. Waiting for the end of the flight times were very slow. Mood deteriorated" 316.
Subjective time dilation, emotional intensity, and researchers say the Arctic in the last few days to find the polar stations. ID Papanin wrote: "Last night at the station" North Pole "… We have not even had dinner, so worried that the piece did not go down your throat … I decided to give himself up. Began to shave. Excitement hands trembled. .. cut, the blood began to flow … " 317 "There is a 274-th night on the ice, – noted in his diary EK Fedorov. – Fixed cost, light of the many lights," Taimyr "and" Murman "(icebreakers coming up for removal from the polar station" North Pole. "- In . L.) … Silent, we were a little nervous, trying to hide it from each other, and we have many small things … You do not want to sleep. "
N. Vasilevski highlights of polar stations in Antarctica in late winter peculiar complex psycho-emotional reactions associated with the preparation for the journey and the expectation of returning to their homeland. About his experience at this stage of IF Ryabinin says: "The first time I went to Antarctica and a half years, and all survived the winter well. But before we left was assailed by longing – wanted to see my wife, daughter, mother, friends, even though something neantarkticheskoe – forest, river … The second time I went for only four months, and three of them felt fine. But on the fourth rolled forward the same "319.
As our (O. Kuznetsov, VI Lebedev) of the study, the same pattern was observed in the subjects in the last days of the experiment in solitary isolation. Waiting for inclusion in ordinary life they performed only regulated the job and the rest of the stock of their work, collect things, and sometimes randomly switching from one activity to another. Some subjects experienced these last hours is particularly painful. GT Coast wrote: "… the last, the tenth day began, as always … and suddenly I wanted to climb the wall, a hammer in her feet and fists to beat on her head, tearing teeth … To break the damned, a hole, to tear! .. smash it to hell, smash to pieces, turn to pieces! " 320 Emotional tension caused by the expectation of the end of the experiment, clearly objectified in vegetative reactions, biochemical changes, physical activity, sleep disorders and a number of psychological parameters (time samples, work on the machine, etc.).
M. Sifre, in the cave, noted a subjective acceleration of time. When he was told on the phone that tomorrow he comes to the surface, he had the emotional intensity, and for a time in the perception of slowed. "I never thought – he wrote in his diary – that time can drag on so slowly – as if about to stop at all" 321.
In some cases, the tension in the final stages may cause undesired operation. Thus, in accordance with the flight program "Apollo-11" astronaut Neil Armstrong after the Moon landing was a few hours sleep. However, immediately after landing, he was preparing to leave the lunar module. Emotional tension is expressed in his more frequent rate, respiration and other autonomic responses. The flight had to "break" the schedule and resolve not to leave rested astronaut on the lunar surface. Rescheduling led to turmoil in the television programs transmitted globally.
The emotional intensity of the approach to the line dividing one stage from another, is not unique to surdokamernyh experiments, snorkeling, space travel, etc. In particular, Lewin noted that the passage of time increases the amount of release of prisoners escapes from correctional homes and similar institutions. When the term of the release is approaching, increasing the desire for freedom so that some prisoners can not withstand mental stress and escape 322.
From these materials, we can conclude that in the final stages of being in unusual conditions of existence there is tension, nervousness, characterized by painful and emotional experience of time dilation in perception.
The origin of the final stage of mental tension clearly traced back to the anticipation of the family, normal operation, etc. In our experience, at this stage, topics of conversation are as seamen's encounter with the family and friends who stayed on shore for the upcoming business and entertainment. This was also evidenced by the diary entries of polar explorers. So, EK Fedorov wrote: "After all, tomorrow our whole months good life will change immediately, We'll take the customary fur clothing, will wash well, we'll see the newspaper, we see people – just a lot of people …" 323
Psychological stress during the final phase of space flight, in contrast to the experiments surdokamernyh due not only to the anticipation of a return to normal life, but the suspense: how will descend to Earth? When planting the first manned spacecraft, according to the program, the estimated time was to engage the brake power unit, and then place the separation of the descent module and instrument module. While automation oriented ship, astronaut, getting information about the processes, was able at any time to switch to manual control. He received the information about the action of the brake and the propulsion system. But how is a division of capsule and instrument module, it was not, although this depended on the safe return to Earth. Gagarin tells of his experiences: "Once triggered retropropulsion I waited separation instrument compartment and capsule … The wait was painful. Time seemed to stand still. Seconds seen as many minutes. But the division realized and everything went on as usual, "324. Experienced a similar emotional state and other astronauts. We present introspection Shatalov, "Brake motor worked the allotted time and was silent. Again there was silence. Again returned weightlessness. Tried to understand – all there in our order as to whether the engine worked? First impression – in our mission has not changed. no new sensations. Apparent complete immobility in space. Silence … All that depended on us, we did … and still worries about … It is ten very long, agonizing minutes. wait separation "325.
After the de-orbiting astronauts experienced painful moments, waiting chute opening. "Everything went according to the program – says L. Popov. – Still seconds before opening the parachute stretched out, like minutes. Cloud nearby, and cotton from the parachute does not come. But he came over his head – and we are on Earth" 326 .
Painful wait state, as described in the above observations, it is consistent with the information theory of emotion developed by PV Simonov. As already mentioned in chapter three, the inability to obtain the personal significance of information may result in an "information neurosis." Here is an example of a neurotic condition in the absence of information. During the research subjects were engaged in an isolation chamber experimental operator activity. While on the experimental conditions, they did not know whether to answer 'signals because the feedback was not. In the course of operating activity subject FA demanded to inform him of the results of his work. Receiving no answer, he repeatedly requested it. After the second failure, he said that will permanently switch to terminate the experience, if he will not give the right information. F. The behavior observed nervousness, accompanied by autonomic responses (increased heart rate and breathing, changes in EEG and galvanic skin reflex). The experiment was terminated.
In this regard, it is noted that "an important means of preventing the emotional tension may be to create such devices, which would provide the operator in extreme conditions all necessary information, because the lack of information – one of the main causes of emotional intensity" 327.
Thus, the emotional intensity of the final stage of the job is determined by the anticipation of meetings with close relatives and friends, including the living space, etc. As for the emotional tension of the final phase of space flight, it caused not only by the anticipation of a return to normal life, but "play" of emergencies during the descent.