See the world — one of the strongest motives for traveling. To see and learn. And loyal assistant in the science: local history, botany, geography, meteorology. Well, the experience of people who lived for centuries in constant contact with nature? Using it you can learn the attentive and intelligent view of the world, slowly judgment, accuracy of observation, imagery of expression. Seasons, the frequency of the phenomena of nature, the process of change embodied in folklore, proverbs, sayings, superstitions and beliefs. In winter, the campaign will be useful information about the formation of snow cover, ice on rivers and lakes, and the signs of frost, snowstorms, thaws. And may well be a return to the roots, that fewer lost sense of unity of man and his environment. So, people's blog — winter calendar menologion.
September 25. Sergiev day. He begins to and from Matrona winter (November 9) is set winter. If snow falls on Sergiev day, the winter is established at Michaelmas (November 8).
November. Word: November or noemvry — not Russian, it is of Byzantium. Our Slavic ancestors called it: Gruden. Their neighbors: falling leaves, jelly podzimny, listognoy, foulbrood. In old Russian life in November was the ninth month, on the XV century considered the third. Since 1700 he is listed eleventh.
1. Cold start. Tula province villagers kept his observation of them in the saying: Cosmas and Damian with a nail.
Michaelmas. Say different: from Michaelmas winter is not worth it. — From the day of Archangel Michael forges winter frosts.
Or with Matrona winter winter gets cold feet and fly from the iron mountain.
10. Or the day being more fog and waiting thaw. If the frost on the trees appear, then expect more snow.
11. From the day Theodore Studite winter winds arrive, in which is a studio on the court and frost on the ground.
12. If snow falls, it will continue to thaw Introduction (November 21).
15. Superstitious villagers believe that on that day all the unclean escape from the earth, for fear of frost and winter.
21. Introduction. Signs are different. Say: Introduction breaks curdle. Or, on the introduction of a thick curdle. Introduction come — winter has led.
Observed that Vvedensky cold winters do not make, thaw, however, upset the winter sledding. But still the beginning of winter sale.
24. Winter festivities in sledges.
26. Yuriev autumn day — the transition of peasants from one landlord to another. The memory of the transitions completely disappeared, but in the last century maintained the custom to serve out for the day prayers of success on the road.
30. In the evening go to the rivers, lakes and wells to listen to the water. If the water is calm, it means that the winter will be warm, no blizzards. If the water is buzzing and moaning, it forecasts the storm, severe frosts and troubles.
December. Word: December or dekemvry — not Russian, it has gone to our fathers from Byzantium. Indigenous Slavic names of this month there were others. Our ancestors called him a stud. In old Russian life in December was the tenth month, and on the fourth century XV. Since 1700 he is considered the twelfth.
1. On the first day of winter in Russia began to teach children to read.
In Kiev, there is a sign that this day is set winter weather: the day over. Barbarians winter bridge bridges. Meanwhile, in the province of Orel say to VARVARIN day winter road brew.
In the southern parts of this day is from of old adage: the day over. Sava winter nails eyes open. They say it this way: on the day of St.. Sava River winter greasy.
Nicholas Day. Observations villagers saved sayings: the day over. Nicholas winter walks with a nail. — He went to St. Nicholas, and it will be winter sledding. — Koli on Michaelmas zakuet winter, then Nikola Rusk. — Winter was driven sleigh to Nicola, here and thaw. — Koli winter day before Nikolina snow sweeps, road unworthy. — Praise the winter after Nikolina day …
12. Solonovorot sun turns to summer and winter in the cold. That is why this day is called solonovorotom, swing-ball, rotation. Sun dress up in festive dress and kokoshnik, sits in a cart and going to the warm countries. Winter walks to the same day in a bearskin rug, is knocking on the roof at night and wakes women stoke the furnace. If the winter walks on the field, then go for it vistas blizzard and being asked to do. If the forest, then pours out of the sleeve frost. If the river is then followed by his forges three feet of water. It is believed that the solonovoroty bear den tossed from one side to the other, that the sun heats the cows goodbye flank.
Old people notice: which way the wind blows, the other side will blow it up to the spring equinox.
16. If on that day will be the frost on the trees, the yuletide will be warm. A big hit in the morning frost — I will continue to Epiphany.
24. Christmas Eve. Carol. In olden zamoskovnyh villages in the sleigh drove Kolyada girl, dressed, over dress, white shirt. But in the past century in the caroling involved only children: ancient Kolyada and all the ancient rites completely disappeared.
From this evening come to Russia Yule — a fun time for all ages. Morning children spend slavlenii and virsheva-tion. Go to the den, and the verse ratseyami home.
Divination and pereryazhivaniya. There is a general belief that from this night of fun begins demons: impure arrive then to the ground, witch sdruzhayutsya with spirits fly on the Sabbath, conceal from the sky the moon and stars.
Our villagers to this day beat pigs and to the liver and spleen are judged on the winter, if the spleen is flat and smooth to the back, then expect a harsh winter, and if it will be thicker, then I think that will come with the winter chills at the end, fat in the liver middle means that the frost will start from the middle of winter, the broad side of the liver to the belly of a cold winter with promises.
Generous evening. Our neighbors malorussy visiting homes schedrovat schedrovki and sing — songs that glorify the host.
January. Word: January, or of January, or Ianuary — not Russian, it has gone to our fathers from the Byzantine Empire, along with the Julian calendar. Indigenous Slavic names of this month were different, and this difference is held by each generation. Our ancestors called him prosinets, Letnikov, pervnik, zimets and prozimets. Neighbors: Cross-section, chills. Literate people XI century wrote: enouar (by Ostrom Gospel), and as if to illustrate the words of another added: "rekomago prosintsa." All of these names book: people forget his ancestors called before January. Time concealed from us, what month is prosinets our fathers. In the Christian life, our nation has made three changes: 1) the old Russian account when the year began in March, was the eleventh month of January, and 2) when the year began in September, it was the fifth, and 3) since 1700, he is always first.
1. Vasiliev day. Special vremyaschislenie when Christmas divination around rampant. On this night, that would at divination or fell, so always happen.
2. Continue the Christmas divination. Old woman, known in Russia under the name of grandmothers-povitushek, celebrate this day flushing lihomanok. Lihomanki hell kicked out of the frost, seek refuge in the warm huts, where there are always people guilty. A lihomanki only know what to look for people to blame, and if already syschut guilty, and will be able to shake, and poznobit …
Last Christmas divination. Thistle. Since time immemorial, is a belief that if someone wants to be intact on the road, the one to stock this oil paper, which was a thistle. Foraged Voshchanka old woman perehodnitsy emanating all the way, the roads and paths of the Moscow River to the Jordan.
Twelfth night. Star. Heaving water at Midnight "Epiphany snow. Snow — a great thing for the whole Russian land: it is suitable for all Russian people. They say that the snow collected in Twelfth night, can keep the water in the wells of the year. One has only to field prinest snow, put it in a pit, and then from it will sporina and an aid in the whole year, at least during the summer there was not a drop of rain. This snow heal ailments — numbness in the legs, dizziness, seizures.
6. Vodokreschi. Bitter cold. Epiphany. Vodokreschi — the word old. This word villagers Moscow, Tula, Orel, and Kiev provinces express time and celebration when performed on the rivers St. vodosvyaschenie.
Bitter cold, known for his cruelty, according to legend villagers portend fertility. Kiev, referring to the now frost, add: no crack crack, and had passed vodokreschi.
Old people take notice that if that day will be a blizzard, then the same thing will happen to the carnival if snow flakes — to harvest, clear day to crop failure. Fog — a lot of bread. Warm day — dark bread (ie dense).
16. Peter-day polukorma. Villagers think of this day is exactly half of winter feed. Excess balance portends fertility.
18. Athanasian frosts. On the day of Athanasius clematis are always very cold. Obozniki and the drivers who go from the steppe places in Moscow Chato are freezing face. Others, looking at them, they say, to take care of Athanasius nose.
Healers claim that only by Athanasius can banish witches. Though these days are flying witches' sabbath and there lose their memory of excessive joy.
20. If this day blizzard, the whole carnival is a great broom-broom on Carnival; come wasps attacks ays Pancake blizzard. If the bright sun in the afternoon, then take notice that the spring will be early.
22. Boxing Day. Timothy. Poluzimniki. Extreme cold, to be in that day, were called Tymofiivka: pozhdi Tymofiivka frost! — What is the court of freeze-by! Listen, Timofeyevsky. On this day exactly accounts for half of the winter: that's come poluzimniki. — Polzimy camp on Timothy poluzimnika.
24. A day-Axinya poluzimnitsy notice different prices if they rise breads — the next harvest meager. Fall — the harvest will be in abundance. In the northern provinces, half are for that day. There, they say, Behold, those Axinya-poluzimniki.
If the weather is good, red and spring.
28. Kudesy. It is believed that if that day does not leave for the night gifts for houses, one of a kind, it turns into a dashing. With this change in the yard and in the house all goes naizvorot. You can relieve the brownie Kudesy.
FEBRUARY. Word: February or fevruary — not Russian, it has gone to our fathers, and from Byzantium. Our ancestors, the Slavs called it: Cross-section and snowy, neighbors: fierce, druinnik (second), the cross section. Name of February in the old calendar meets half of XI century. Villagers hitherto referred to as side ogrey, based on the fact that the cattle out in February of sheds warm side. In our annals called it: a wedding, from the winter weddings, committed on the day of the Epiphany to the carnival. Under the new bill Russian is the second anniversary of February, in the old way, y, when the year was considered in March, he was twelve, when in September, he was the sixth.
Old people take notice this evening: if you show a lot of stars in the sky, the winter will continue for a long time and it will be late spring.
Of Candlemas is the last frost, and after they did not dare to embark on a sleigh ride away. Marks observed on this day is different, depending on the terrain. If snow falls, say, on Candlemas snow, making each the spring dozhzhok. Blizzard will: if on the road peremetet Candlemas blizzard, the feed-ton pick up. With this omen connects the concept of late autumn, the lack of forage. Thaw heralds thin and rotten spring. A sign of early spring: on Candlemas day from sparrow wall wet. It is believed that from that day for the first time appears the spring warmth: the Candlemas winter to summer meet. And when the day will sered frost, sun, say, the sun is in the summer and the winter in the cold.
5. On this day, take off the evil spirits from hell in the form of birds and look into the pipe. Where oploschayut and not close them tightly, not fumigated thistle — impure probably settle.
Survive them then!
11. Vlasievskaya frost in Kostroma considered last. On the contrary, in the Tula — they are among the seven steep matinees: Vlasievskaya mornings come, keep your eyes open!
Three to Blaise, and three after Blasius, and the seventh for the day Blasius. In many places the frost remained proverb: Blasius, knocking the horn of winter.
20. Maniac. Since ancient times, there is a tradition that should not be looking at the shooting stars of the day. Thin sign portends death.
28. Basil drip. From that day, the snow melts on the roof.
29. Kasian envious: for neither glances — all fades. The most disastrous day for all possible accidents. And cattle falls and trees wither and disease appear and strife start. Opened in Russia from time immemorial considered dangerous leap year and many attribute to him an unprecedented disaster.
March. Word of March — not Russian, it is of the Byzantine Empire. Our Slavic ancestors called him suhy, Sukhiy, neighbors: birch angry brzhezen, marzets, pozimsky, tretnik. Since March began Russian flight (word, published today in the use of the book.) Czechs first day of March until now called: Letnitsa, and our common people: a beginner. In old Russian life in March was considered the first month of the year, and this account has changed only in the reign. Vasily Dmitrievich because, at the beginning of the XV century. When the year started to count in September, March was the seventh. Since 1700, he has to be the third in a row.
1. Boxing Day. Evdokia. Oklichka spring. Snow. After thawing appear buns — characteristics between ice and snow to shreds.
On this day they call spring. End of winter time hires, rents begin spring. It is noted that since the afternoon. Evdokia winds start blowing and whistling: Evdokia with a standing dog buried in snow. And in March the bow goes down, if at Evdokia priluchitsya frost.
Our people think that since March 1, the snow gets a special healing power. Long I'm sick of snow collected from the hill> and watered their snow water for various diseases.
4. Rookery. If rooks — the first spring birds — fly directly to the nest, the spring will be united. With the arrival of spring warmth and pacified frights — Evil One, no one akin, invisible, vengeful, destroying family life plaguing mankind.
9. Since the beginning of matinees (morning frost lasted exactly 40 days) baked "lark" to call the spring: how protalinok — as larks. Larks arrivals — red summer bring. Belief to meet spring birds on arrival in Russia from the Greeks. They met spring when flown nightingales.
25. Annunciation. At the Annunciation, the winter spring overcame! What is the Annunciation, so is Easter Sunday. Since ancient times in Russia opened, that in this day people buy birds and releases them with their hands out of the cage at will.
Signs: If the day of the Annunciation will be red, the year of the fire. If you go the rain, then — mushroom. It will be cold, cold morning last long.
27. After the snow thaws and freezes in the present villagers say, Let us go up to the present. — Come on nastovitse.
* — All dety are the old style.
Sources Menologion — Proverbs of the Russian people, a collection of VI Dal, National Diary. — Legends of the Russian people, to gather and P Sakharov.