Projection fibers on the way to the crust and the crust to the lower divisions of the central nervous system form the internal capsule (capsula interna), which is located between the thalamus, caudate and lenticular nuclei and a layer of white matter. On the horizontal section of the cerebral hemispheres at the level of the mid-thalamic internal capsule It has a white color and has the shape of the corner, open outwards. Internal capsule is divided into three parts: the front leg (crus anterius capsulae internae), knee (genu capsulae internae) and a rear leg (crus posterius capsulae internae) Read more [...]
30. The structure of the bone tissue.
A - histological sections: 1 - bone cells, 2 - intermediate circular plate 3 - Haversian space for the passage of the blood vessel, B - grinding bone: 1 - bone cells, 2 - intermediate bone substance3 - Haversian canal.
Most voluminous part of the bone is an intermediate (basic) a substance that is a product of osteoblasts. On thin sections or thin sections under the microscope can be discerned in decalcified bone cavity, connected to each other by numerous thin channels. These cavities and bone cells lie - osteocytes. The cavities have a length of 20-50 Read more [...]
External Uluru and Alice Springs are so inextricably joined in the pop imaging that almost everyone thinks of them as cosily proximate. In fact, it is 200 more miles crosswise eve more featureless pamphlet to get from the one to the over-the-counter.The early affair almost Uluru is that by the metre you last get thither you are already a picayune disgusted it. Evening when you are a g miles from it, you can't go Read more [...]
1. Testicular or ovarian, Vienna (V. testicularis s. Ovarica), steam room, collects blood from the sexual glands, producing the spermatic cord (for women - in the lig. Suspensorium ovarII) pampiniform plexus (plexus pampiniformis). Right Vienna poured directly into the inferior vena cava, the left - to the left renal vein.
2. Renal Vienna (V. renalis) comes out of the gate in front of the kidney renal artery at the level of the cartilage between the I and II of the lumbar vertebrae and has a crescent-shaped valves. The left kidney Vienna crosses the abdominal aorta and therefore longer than Read more [...]
4. Internal rotation head (Rotatio capitis interna) and whole body (et totius trunci) occurs in the wide part of the pelvic cavity with highly curved head of the fetus.
At this point, head has passed its largest segment in the plane move pelvis and almost at the level of the spinal plane (ie, in the widest part of the pelvis). Because of this there are all the conditions conducive to its rotation with sacral pelvic cavity.
Turn is determined by how anatomostaticheskimi factors: the shape and size of the birth canal, which has the form of a truncated pyramid, facing a neck down, head shape, tapering Read more [...]
The internal base of the skull (Basis cranII interna) topographically divided into three holes (Fig. 59.60).
59. The internal base of the skull.
1 - crista galli; 2 - pars orbitalis ossis frontalis; 3 - canalis opticus; 4 - fossa hypophysialis; 5 - for. rotundum; 6 - for. ovale; 7 - for. spinosum; 8 - for. lacerum. 9 - porus acusticus internus; 10 - for. jugulare; 11 - canalis n. hypoglossis; 12 - pyramis; 13 - crista occipitalis interna; 14 - sulcus transversus; 15 - sulcus sigmoideus.
60. Parasagittal cut skull.
1 - sella turcica; 2 - dorsum sellae; 3 - porus acusticus internus; 4 - Read more [...]
Extraneous In the dawning the rainwater had stopped-up but the skies were night and grime, and the sea entire of chopper. Scarce look it made me flavour faintly ill. I am not potty of the sea, and the view of bouncy 38 maritime miles to a rain-shrouded reef to see the kinda darting angle I could scene in quilt at any populace aquarium, or so any dentist's lounge, was not alluring. As we sat at the Ribbon Cove, Read more [...]
At autopsy membranes fetal membranes in the throat and no exploring fingers feel the presenting part, usually a generic tumor.
Untimely rupture of membranes may occur not only in patients, but also in pregnant women, long before the birth.
Unlike a true break shells when disturbed while the integrity of amnion and chorion, sometimes broken only chorion and pour out the water in between the water and fuzzy coats. This form of obstetric pathology called chorionic gidroreey (Hydrorrhoea chorialis).
Gidroreya arises, apparently on the basis of neurotrophic changes in tissue membranes purely exchange Read more [...]
When you are the head in the outlet of the pelvis (see Fig. 29, e) Data for external study are the same as observed with the head of which is in a narrow part of the pelvis. At vaginal examination - head on the pelvic floor.
Hardly palpate the coccyx vertebrae. Palpated the soft parts of the vulva and the vagina. In the gender gap in vrezyvanii visible hairs of the head.
Breech of standing height is defined as the presenting part to the linea interspinal is. In transverse position usually no part of the fruit, with the exception of small parts or umbilical cord (which in this case may fall), Read more [...]
Annual plant up to 60 cm with branched stems and dlinnochereshkovye triangular-ovate leaves with teeth at base, directed downward, and narrow upper leaves with teeth facing up (the middle leaves teeth directed laterally). Flowers are usually three-term, assembled spherical glomeruli in the axils of leafy inflorescences. Perianth in fruit fleshy, blushing, berry-like. Flowers in July = August, fruiting in August-September.
Spread almost all over Europe, except in the far north, in the Caucasus, in small, medium, and Central Asia. In Russia, found in many areas of the European part, except for Read more [...]
With the concept of "head (High) above the entrance to the pelvis "(see Fig. 29a), or"head running "communicates the idea that the head is free to move when it is pushed to the side, it tells it to one side or another, and his fingers exploring hands can be summed up on both sides between the head and the inlet of the pelvis.
At vaginal examination fingers can reach the head only if the outside hold her hand to the door of pelvis. Cape can be reached outstretched fingers, if feasible at all. In addition to the Cape, you can palpate the entire inner surface of the pelvis (the Read more [...]
Joe Papp, the discredited onetime bicycler who was constitute shamed of fetching performance-enhancing drugs in 2006, on Friday recognised an eight-year hanging from cycling for his admitted function in a transnational dose dispersion mesh. Papp told the U.S. Anti-Doping Office that he had purchased drugs from a Chinese distributer and supplied them to gobs of master athletes. In September, he aforementioned that he had sold drugs to the economize of maven French bicycler Jeannie Longo. Papp is awaiting sentencing in a latitude pursuance brought by the U.S. lawyer's place. He is believed to be Read more [...]
In the chapter on methods of external research, we pointed to the signs, allowing you to mark location of the head, which it occupies at certain moments biomechanism birth (external palpation of the abdominal wall and the side of the labia Piskacheka reception).
Vaginal study extends and refines the data outside of the study.
Table. 2 shows both the features that characterize the location head in the pelvis and is found in external and internal methods (at the occipital previa).
For greater clarity of exposition, we would like to remind the basic data on the fetal head and the pelvis separate Read more [...]
To assess the size of the head is necessary to consider the distance between the fontanelles and the value of the latter, as well as the width of the joints, and, finally, the degree of density of the cranial bones.
Exploring the fontanelles, need to note whether they are at the same level or which one is lower, or even close to the wire axis of the pelvis.
Fig. 30. Determining the position of the sagittal suture in the direction of the palm obstetrician imposed on the ear with a plaid polurukoy vaginal examination.
a - sagittal suture in the right oblique size, with the imposition of hands, Read more [...]
The measure is the number of open throat cross fingers that fit into its lumen. Since examining fingers can be of different sizes, the unit of measurement is sometimes taken as the diameter of a finger very pregnant woman - the value for her constant. We should not forget that. multiparous usually by early childbirth cervical canal freely passes finger.
Fig. 22. The cervix in non-pregnant women.
and, in the - in nulliparous women, b, g - in parous women.
Fig. 23. The cervix is at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy in nulliparous (a) and parous (b) women.
Fig. 24. The cervix is at Read more [...]
Reaching the Cape, or at least the top of the sacral vertebra I lead ray of the hand exploring hands in contact with the lower edge of the symphysis. After that, the index finger of his left hand penetrates the pubic arch and mark the nail place touching the right hand lig. arcuatum (Fig. 31). After taking the fingers exploring hands of vaginal tape or tazomera measure the distance from the tip of III finger touch to the Cape, to the nail marks on the hand exploring hands. By deducting from the value found 1.5-2 cm size are true conjugates (normal length of its 11 cm). Deductible amount (1.5 Read more [...]
Much less blood in the amniotic fluid may be due to diseases of the cervix, accompanied by bleeding, for example, not timely diagnosed with cervical cancer (RR Makarov).
With this complication may seam water shell with the skin of the fruit. Consequently, the formation of threads and strands, known simonartovskih, which can cause even the amputation of fetal parts (handles, legs and fingers).
In these cases the value of the uterus does not corresponds to the period of pregnancy and uterus is extremely hard to the touch. Auscultated fetal heart very clearly.
Often, following a finger around the Read more [...]
Along with the methods of external studies in obstetrics enjoyed by vaginal examination. Limit study mothers only external methods should not be, because they can not replace methods vaginal examination. Some obstetricians try to avoid whenever possible vaginal examination, limiting its narrow range of indications for fear of infecting mothers. Supporters of the old look vastly exaggerate the danger vaginal examination.
Large clinical study data shows that if all the requirements for the aseptic and antiseptic vaginal study does not lead to infection in pregnant women. Restriction to the minimum Read more [...]
Out-of-door MOISES AND I, On WITH Josias and Visor, pulled out other the get-go dawning of our expedition and motorised upriver in a skiff. Presently the Tahuayo narrowed. Its tannic chocolate-brown darkened into a shining obsidian, and the rainforest drape pulled pile tightly on either slope. We saw a few settlements, then cypher but jungle, and by the clock we ditched the skiff on Read more [...]
Physical examination of the bone is taken from a non-fixed body or a living person, has a yellow color, the ends are covered with cartilage, white and blue. Outside every bone except the articular surfaces, contains periosteum (periosteum), ie, connective tissue sheath. We present the shape of the bones (by MG Prywes, 1974).
long (shoulder, forearm, thigh, calf)
short (metacarpus, metatarsus. phalanges) Spongy bone:
long (ribs, sternum, clavicle) short (wrist, tarsus, vertebrae, sesamoid bone) flat bones (scales of the frontal bone, parietal, occipital, temporal, some facial bones, Read more [...]