Below we consider some types of berry plants, listing them in order of maturity. Rare, exotic species in Siberia in the list are not included.
Strawberries. One of the most widespread and well-known species. Wild strawberry grows mainly in pine forests on fresh soils with moderately developed herbaceous cover. It also occurs in forest glades and clearings, forest edges, clearings and garyam. This plant does not produce sites with solid cover, growing in small groups or individual instances. Therefore collect a strawberry difficult, besides its maturation strongly stretched. The maximum number of berries, collected one of the authors on the unspoiled sima, the day was about the bucket. Usually this number is much smaller. Any accessories in the collection of strawberries does not apply.
Berries themselves are very tender, not tolerate long transport and storage. These circumstances determine the nature of the gathering strawberries — or used it right away, or the day of return from the forest. Delicacy is strawberries with fresh cream and sugar. The use of a considerable number of (cup at a time, and for small children or less) can cause diathesis. Causes this berry as high blood pressure.
Fragrant strawberry jam, his cooking does not have any specific features. Berry, rubbed with sugar in a 1:1 ratio, with the addition of citric acid can be stored all winter in the refrigerator. Delicious dumplings with strawberries, fresh (mashed with sugar) can be used with tea, as an additive to compote. However, as the number of collected berries are usually small, to preserve vitamins present in them is best not to resort to thermal treatment.
Strawberries relates to plants, the number is decreasing. This is due to intensive logging in pine forests. During the development of young trees, which form on the site of the old stands, because of the high canopy trees strawberry long time there is almost absent. She begins to appear in maturing stands. But ripe wood with developed herbaceous vegetation is cut and strawberries disappears again (on cutting it is a lot of it is rare.)
Strawberry. Predominantly steppe plant, locally form a continuous cover on the slopes of hills, forest glades. Sometimes found under the canopy of forest fragmentation. Is widespread in the south of Siberia. Strawberries ripen in mid-summer, gradually, like strawberries. Its berries are larger, more fragrant and sweet. Unlike strawberries in strawberry sepals close fitting to the berries and then left in the collection. Follow her cleaning — troublesome and time-consuming, so the collection is heavy yields and small berries selectively retained. Sepals should be dried and used for brewing tea vitamin.
On pristine areas high collection efficiency — the day you can dial up to three buckets of unpeeled fruit. They are used mainly for cooking jam and cooking kruchenki (at a ratio of 1:1 with sugar). It is minced or crushed berries with a mixer, which is added sugar. This mixture is thoroughly mixed until the sugar dissolves. Keep kruchenku need in the refrigerator or in a cool cellar.
Plowing, grazing, afforestation of the field leads to a reduction in area on which grows strawberries, reducing its abundance.
Honeysuckle Blue. Under this name combines several similar species. Honeysuckle — a typical summer berry ripening and one of the first employees of the object of mass gathering. In large berry fields with a good harvest after full maturity they shake the branches to spread out under a bush film, umbrella, which dramatically increases the efficiency of collection (the day you can collect up to 3 — 4 buckets). In this case, the fee shall be made after fall of the leaves in autumn.
Blue honeysuckle is widespread in the mountain forests of southern Siberia, also occurs on the slopes overgrown shrubs, especially a lot of it by punching and garyam. Characteristic dark coniferous taiga zone, much less grow on poor sandy soils in the pine forests. These features lead to increased distribution space berries, due to logging dominated forest, fire, education, Dendrolimus sibiricus.
Kept better than strawberries or strawberry. In any case, on the second or third day after the time (if they are not stored in a warm place in a sealed container) berries may well be used for cooking kruchenki. Jam honeysuckle has a specific bitterness mixed kruchenka much tastier honeysuckle and blackberry (with a ratio of 1:1). Because both of these berries are prone to fermentation, it is recommended to add kruchenku citric acid at the rate of 0.3 — 0.5 g per 10 liters. Of course, the product must be stored in a cool place as possible, storage room, he can not stand.
Some species of honeysuckle with red berries. They are not used for food.
Blueberries. Distributed very widely — from tundra to the south of the forest zone. In the pine forests of the fresh soil forms a solid blueberry. Thinning stands promotes berries, and in places of their fruiting is especially abundant. Growing blueberries and under the canopy of coniferous trees, as well as aspen, where it rarely fruits.
Ripens in late summer, later honeysuckle. Maturation is a man. The main factor determining yields, is the weather during flowering. Rain and cold are bad for the insects that pollinate the flowers of blueberries. Naturally, after the spring with the weather difficult to hope for a good harvest. In addition, blueberries, and a number of other berries, is severely affected by spring frosts, pelted flowers and ovary, at least — by the summer.
The structure of mature shrubs and berries allows chorus "mechanize" their collection using simple
Fig. II. Scraper berry-
tools — scraper (Fig. 11). This method causes a lot of criticism, because the manual assembly is less damaged bushes. But we must keep in mind that not only the manual collection is several times less productive, but also leads to trampling berry. Collector who uses scraper, always on the go, he sits down, does not get on his knees, as the manual transaxle. Of course, if you use the scraper can not do without injury to the plants. But they can easily handle such injuries. As far blueberry fruit annually, in lean years shrubs time to heal injuries. To sort the collected blueberries immediately, before she let the juice. Preference for a particular method of cleaning of debris must be given on the basis of specific conditions (you can winnow the wind, you can "skate" berries on an inclined surface, the laid plastic sheeting can also be used with a cell sieve first 3 — 4 mm for the plating of small debris, then to cell 6 — 7 mm, through which swaps berries). Of course, some of the debris remains in any case, but a little bit. If you do not clean the berries immediately, then later, at home, will have to spend it in a few times as long as the wet berry sticks garbage.
When not immediately take the collected berries home, put it in a cool place (for example, a whole plastic bag put into the cold spring, securing the edge of the bag on the banks of the stone), or spread in a thin layer in a cool ventilated area, or boiled with little sugar and hermetically sealed. To this end, it is convenient to use plastic containers for food products with screw caps.
Blueberries can also be stored in the form of kruchenki with sugar. However, such kruchenka turns very liquid and tends to ferment. It should be added citric acid and must be stored in a cool place.
You can freeze blueberries in the freezer. Dried berries are used as a medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.
Clear-cutting in pine lead to a reduction in area blueberry. With its cutting replaces grasses, which appeared the same in closed regrowth shrubs usually bad fruit.
Red currants (oxalis). This shrub — a characteristic type of undergrowth in coniferous forests. It begins to bear fruit with currants thinning stands. Blueberries ripen soon after and in many places is found in large quantities. Especially abundant harvests are clearings, burned areas, silk pryadnikah. Fruiting than annually suffer from spring frosts.
The extension maturity is small and one week after the start usually already finished. At various bushes, under identical conditions, the berries ripen about the same time. Under the canopy of trees — about ten days later than in the open areas. With an abundant harvest for the day you can collect up to 4 — 5 buckets. When the poor — not to gain and buckets. Collection is conducted without any devices, often substituted for container branches and berries poured into it. Of course, in this case, there are lots of garbage, but significantly, in one and a half to two times faster fee. Currants sorted manually.
Store collected berry maybe two or three days in hot weather — less. Used mainly codling to make jelly, as the relatively large seeds kruchenka jam or out of it is not particularly tasty. Jelly is made from the juice and sugar, which are mixed in the ratio of 1:1.5 (or more sugar) and stored in a cool place. Jelly convenient canned, reboil and Bay in glass jars, which are rolled.
In the preparation of any food oxalis need much sugar, about half to two times more than other berries. Juice and jelly well add jam sweet fruits (grapes, sweet apples, watermelon peels, melon).
Black currant. Spread as widely as the preceding species, but requires more habitat. Most often infests slopes, on the bottoms of streams, valleys, boreal streams and rivulets, which climbs up to the watershed. The most abundant fruiting occurs in open areas — clearings, burned areas, Dendrolimus sibiricus.
Ripening are reaching and how it is connected with the place of growing shrubs (under the canopy of closed spaces, on the northern slopes of the maturation is almost a month later than in the south slopes, open areas) and their individual differences. Bearing itself is highly dependent on spring frosts. Often yields and lean sections alternate in a relatively small area.
There are many types and forms of black currant, including an almost green, pink, brown fruit. They vary greatly in size, taste, ripening. Often grow mixed.
Collection is by hand. On maturity of berries should be judged not only by the color as hardness, based on how easily they break away from the peduncle. Picking berries to gently, avoiding sudden jerks, bumps on the branches, as the most mature and large berries often fall off at the slightest shock. The day when a good harvest can be collected up to three or four buckets.
Use currants both fresh and for cooking kruchenki. In the past, was also a popular cooking jam, but now, if cooking and done, the short duration (the so-called five-minute-jam). Is jam hot rolled into the banks. Well kept this berry in the form of frozen, dried black currants rare. Decoction of dried fruit is recommended as an astringent, diuretic and diaphoretic (20 g of dried berries 1 cup of water, boil for 20 minutes and take 1 tablespoon three to four times a day).
Growth areas and logging slash areas enhances the spread abundantly fruiting berries.
Raspberry. It grows mainly on cuts and burns from conifer plantations. This shrub — biennial and the abundance of non-bearing shoots of the year one can predict the future harvest.
Matures at about the same time as the black currant. Ripening determined primarily by growth conditions, within the same individual sites is it to a man. Berries ripen gradually, often simultaneously with ripe fruits can see the flowers.
Collection is by hand. Most valuable first berries ripen, usually larger and less susceptible insects. The effectiveness of low blanks, not always possible to gather for a day bucket of berries. They are delicate, perishable. They should be handled, or the day of collection, or the next day.
Widely held view of raspberries as a favorite berry bears. This view is not entirely correspond to reality. In Siberia, the brown bear willingly eat red currants, cranberries or blueberries than raspberries. In any case, the probability of meeting him in the pure raspberry patch is no more than another sima.
Is used mainly for cooking jam, make jelly, kruchenki. In very good fresh cream. Raspberries should be added to fruit drinks, which it gives a nice flavor. This berry — classic diaphoretic and febrifuge. For this purpose a jam, tincture of dried fruit (the rate of 2 tablespoons per cup of boiling water, boil for 20 minutes.)
Stone bramble. Second rate berry, which is collected with a high abundance, and even then not always. Is a herbaceous plant with rather large dissected leaves. Stem from several (at least — one) berry drupelets size of a small pea.
It grows mainly in mature pine and birch. Ripens at the same time as raspberries or later. Bears fruit almost every year. Pick berries by hand, the performance fee is low. This is mainly used to make jelly. In fresh form is rarely used because of the large, hard seeds.
Jelly tasty, reminiscent of red currant jelly, but the yield of juice from the berries small. Bramble fruits in fresh and dried form used as antiscorbutic and febrifuge.
Blackberries. Distributed mainly in western Siberia and further to the west. There are several forms of blackberries. In creeping form larger berries, blue-gray, matte, structurally resemble raspberries, very tender and juicy. Maturity — at the end of August, yields are very abundant. It grows mainly on raw river floodplains, in damp clearings, along the banks of water bodies. We erect forms (brambles) berries are smaller, with larger seeds, it is usually common in the mountains, is found clearings, glades.
In general, as the object of a special levy, blackberry unpopular. Its berries are perishable, can not tolerate transportation. In addition, berries inconvenient to collect because of thorny creeping stems that wounded arm. Used fresh and for cooking jam, jams and jellies.
Blueberries. Widespread shrub, which grows in forest swamps (often together with a cranberry). It is more common in middle and northern taiga. Blue-gray oblong berries ripen in late summer berry fruit frequently and abundantly.
Blueberries harvested by hand or use a scraper. The berries are juicy, tender, awkward to transport. Use them fresh, pour sugar, make kruchenku, jelly, jam. When gathering blueberries in warm weather in areas overgrown rosemary, may be poisonous essential oils, which highlights the bush.
Raspberry. Low creeping plants, very similar to the blackberry. Distributed mainly in the northern forests. In the southern taiga little fruit. It grows on the banks of small ponds, swamps to zakraykam, moist clearings and garyam. Often you can find sites with a continuous cover of this plant. The performance fee is low, as in the procurement of raspberries.
Berry berry-like brambles, they are dark red, very tasty, sweet with a distinct flavor.
Eaten fresh, you can cook very fragrant preserves and jams. Berries have healing properties and in any form is recommended for cough, asthma.
Cloudberry. Small, about 20 inches tall, perennial plant that resembles stone berry, but with non-proliferation of dividing leaves. Grows mainly in sphagnum bogs, shrub tundra, northern and middle taiga. The fruit is the same as that of raspberries. Peculiar changes its color: first, berry red, then yellow and after ripening becomes reddish or bright yellow.
Collection is carried out manually, the berry is used mainly in fresh form, as well as to make jelly, jam, jam. The juice from the berries of cloudberries have potent antibacterial properties.
Crowberry (Shiksha). Squat shrub, on a structure similar to blueberries, but different kind of narrow adjacent to the stem leaves than like heather. It is distributed mainly in the northern and middle taiga, where it grows in dry and sredneuvlazhnennyh pine and larch forests often with cranberries. Berry dark blue, similar to blueberries. Ripens in late summer.
Siksa can collect using the same pig as blueberries. However, because of the softness of berries to make it less convenient. Use fresh or for cooking jam, etc. Late-assembly can be stored fresh frozen berries.
Gooseberries. A small shrub to a meter high, scratchy. Widespread, but, as a rule, does not form a continuous thickets. The berries are round or oblong, after ripening yellow-green, translucent, with a thick skin. They have wild shape much smaller than that of cultivated varieties (5 — 7 mm in length). Ripen in late summer.
Because of the sporadic nature of the distribution, confined to remote mountainous areas gooseberry is almost never the object of a special levy. In general, from its sweet-sour fruit flavored jam turns out tasty, not similar to other fruit jam.
Cranberries. One of the most popular for harvesting berries. This is explained not only by its wide distribution, but also the ease of collection and storage. Cranberries grow mainly in pine forests on poor soils derived from them birch, the larch forests. In the mountain forests growing on meadows, among stony placers in the bald area.
Matures in September in the mountains — often before the snow. Stretched and maturation depends on growing location and the characteristics of this form. Generally, cranberries, like black currant, represented by various forms: in some bushes berries are small, dark-red, in the other — big, red, and the third — medium size, pear-shaped.
When collecting cranberries commonly used scraper. They are convenient to use because the clusters are located on the tips of berry bushes, and the berries themselves solid, not pressing in the collection. If the collection is on a heavily cluttered area, it is advisable first to clear.
Gathered berries can quickly shuffle ("roll back" on an inclined plane). Cranberries stored in a cool place can a week — two.
In store for parts of berries or frozen, or pour a small amount of sugar (about 1 — 2 kg per bucket), or soaked by pouring sugar water. Store berries to the cellar, on the balcony, in the refrigerator. Rarer cranberry jam, often it is used as an additive in apple or watermelon jam to give it color and acidity.
It is best to use it fresh, retaining all the vitamins, for example, as a side dish to meat dishes. One of the classic combination of a grouse with cranberries. Brusnichnaya water acts as a laxative.
Cowberry, which are generally long-lived, often burn out, but then again restored. After logging cranberry formed dense pine young-nyaki that cranberries bad fruit.
Cherry. This berry is harvested mostly in Siberia. It grows mainly on the cherry bottoms streams, in damp forests, especially garyam, clear-cutting. Distributed very widely.
Bears fruit every year. Berries ripen in late summer — early fall. Collect them, bending the flexible branches to the ground and trunks. The old, bushy shrubs, poluderevya can easily climb and pick berries, bending to his small branches. Each time, bending branch or stem, then return to their original position. For this to a pole, which is a prigibanie (tightening), tied another hook (Fig. 12).
Dried cherry berries and grind with stones. Bird cherry or steamed flour, sifted on the thick sieve, mixed with butter or sour cream when cooking. From it also make a filling for cakes. Another variant bird cherry cooking flour in varying proportions of flour mixed with conventional and out of the baking of cakes, pies, etc.
Hawthorn. Represented by many species, including the large-fruited, grows in the Far East. Common in Siberia species have small fruits with large hard seeds and a little sweetish pulp. Separating the pulp from the seeds, which is easy to do after steaming, it can be of use for making purees, syrups. Sugar in them is added to taste.
Hawthorn berries in dry form is used for medicinal purposes. They brewed the rate of one tablespoon per cup of boiling water, followed by infusion in a dark place. Used on one or two tablespoons a day before meals. Recommended for many diseases (cardiac dysfunction, insomnia, rheumatism, high blood pressure, shortness of breath, asthma).
Rosehips. Well-known spiny shrub with fruits of various shapes and sizes. Harvested for preparation of vitamin C-rich extract.
Grows in the pine and hardwood forests, forest edges, clearings, etc. garyam Ripens in early fall, after frost fruits are soft, sweet and sour-sweet taste.
In fresh almost never used because of the large amount. strongly pubescent large seeds, forming a "stuffing" of the fruit. As a rule, they are dried and used in the preparation of vitamin teas (usually mixed with herbs).
I rose, in addition to fruit, you can collect the petals of which jam as of rose petals. This preserves the amateur. During the day you can collect enough petals to cook 4 — 5 liters of jam. Cooked it in the syrup, the number of petals and water is taken in mass, about 1:5, put sugar to taste.
Rosehip — restorative, preventive agent for liver, biliary tract and kidneys.
Cranberries. Refers to a popular target blanks. It grows on the forest sphagnum bogs. Cranberry plants themselves trailing, with small leaves, subtle. Therefore, in years of abundant harvests think someone spilled a lot of moss on the berries.
Cranberry forms many forms, including large-fruited, the size of a small cherry. Collection should be carried out in full maturity in September. Collected unripe berries turn red when stored, so if they are collected is for sale, it often begin to mature, although it may be prohibited by existing regulations.
Harvested cranberries by hand, but are beginning to use mechanical devices. Scraper to gather cranberries look like an ordinary, differing from it in the absence of penetrating stalks between the teeth. Rounded teeth allow pressing the moss, which are berries, and thus to collect them. So you can use the scraper is not in any berry and widespread it has not received.
Cranberries stored without any processing in the cold and is used to make jelly. From it you can also do kruchenku and serve the tea instead of jam. Sometimes cooked cranberry jam and present. One of the most neglected in the present dishes — pancakes or potato pudding with cranberry jelly. Cranberry juice with sugar, diluted with water to taste, drink as fever and thirst-quenching agent in acute respiratory disease, angina.
Seabuckthorn. Wild species are found mainly in the south of Siberia, in the river valleys, islands, sparsely wooded slopes of river valleys. Widely used in landscaping, field afforestation.
Harvested in September, but you can collect (shaking) with significant frost when frozen berries do not choke. In warmer months, to gather them uncomfortable because succulent, tender fruit, firmly hold on fruit stems, easily choke. To facilitate the collection, use simple device — a string stretched between two Flyers. This string "cut off" sitting on the branches of berries that fall into the outstretched tray. With this collection of damaged flower buds and better for him not to resort.
Often the collection is made in order to get on-lepihovogo oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the usual vegetable (sunflower) oil. In addition, the berries are used, interspersed with sugar. For long term storage on the surface of the juice also appears a layer of oil. Its medicinal properties are well known and varied use in the treatment of burns and other skin lesions, mouth ulcers, and so fill with sugar berries eaten as jam, juice drink, diluted with water. For jam, usually not used.
Rowan. Autumn and winter berry, which is used by amateurs. Expressed bitterness ash limits her consumption of both fresh and processed form. This bitterness is reduced by peremorazhi vanii-berries, but not disappear.
Rowan spread very widely throughout most of the forest area. This common species dominated forest, clearings, burnt. Less commonly grows in pine forests, avoiding areas with poor, dry soil. Her bush-trees are better developed and more abundant fruit in old, thinned stands.
Gather as rowan after the first frost, and the fall after ripening in the second half of September, peremorazhivaya afterwards. With low bushes tear berries directly from the ground, from high — bending the lower branches or the whole barrel. Stalks should be returned to its original position (using the already described for the collection of cherry devices), or trees can be caused great harm. If the barrel remains in a tilted position, it prignet fallen snow to the ground, resulting in a tip is a tree is completely backfilled. This tip is — a tasty food for voles (if it is in the snow), and for birds, ungulates (if it is not far from the surface of the snow.) Damaged trees, as a rule, can not recover. Sometimes you can even find felled to collect rowan berries. Here too, of course, no comment.
Performance fee when harvesting berries of mountain ash — perhaps the highest. Gathered berries can be stored for a long time without any additional treatment. One is the best to do kruchenku or pour sugar and store in the fridge, cellar. In addition, the rowan berries are used to prepare teas multivitamin, decoction is used for lowering blood pressure, as a laxative, diuretic and cholagogue. The infusion is prepared by boiling dry bay berry (1 teaspoon to 1 cup of water) and insisting 4:00. Take 1 cup three or four times a day.
Kalina. Her late ripening fruits like the ash significantly gorchat. Them in a small amount harvested in late autumn and stored in the cold. Take leave of
wounded viburnum widely, most of it grows in floodplains in the forest-steppe zone. Shrubs and its low yield easily collect only slightly bending the branches, which are then straightened.
When using berries for the filling in pies steamed them well, so that a fairly large seeds are softened and barely felt. In addition, from cranberry jelly can be prepared, which is good to add to any "fresh" cooked.
Decoction of dried fruit cranberry used as an anesthetic in heart failure, tachycardia, asthma, hypertension (1 tbsp. Spoon of dry fruits in a glass of water, boil for 5 min.) Apply one or two tablespoons of three to four times a day before meals.
Do not eat the berries. Berries, non-toxic, but not used for food, are a small group. They are widely distributed in the forests of Siberia cotoneaster (its fruits are used for infusions, which have medicinal properties and are used in a simple and bloody diarrhea), juniper, shishkoyagody having an unpleasant resinous taste, occasionally climber — bittersweet, with a medium-sized elongated red berries, gathered in a small loose bunch. It is a widespread species as red dogwood or svidina — bush with typical shoots and pale-blue berries. Not used for food elderberry, forming a dense cluster of red. There are conflicting messages regarding maynika a double — a small herbaceous plant with a loose cluster of small red berries. AA Mach, author of the well-known book "The Green Pharmacy", says its berries poisonous. At the same time, another researcher, VL. Tcherepnin, who wrote the book "Food Plants of Siberia", to those of these berries are not relevant.
In the above list does not include black nightshade — herb, in appearance similar to potato plants with the same buds, but much smaller fruits — black pea-sized berries. These berries are often eaten children and adolescents. Of the other with a limited distribution in the Siberian species with juicy fruits to mention buckthorn, olholistnuyu with red or black and red fruits. Their use often causes an upset stomach. Not recommended for use in food and some types of currants — dvuigluyu, rock, growing in the mountains and have red berries.
Do not eat berries such as Voronet herbaceous plants, which occurs in dark coniferous forests. His red berries, gathered in a tight little bunch. According to some reports, refers to poisonous. Different species kupeny — widely distributed species — berries also are not eaten, they are blue, suspended to a single stem (Fig. 13).
Of the species used in landscaping, valuable fruit gives bush cherry cultivars Ranetok (paradise apple), already referred to large-fruited species of hawthorn, wild rose. However, against the widespread use of these species in the landscaping of the city has a serious objection, as
Fig. 15. Crow's eye.
in the use of their fruit for food (mostly children and adolescents) in the body can do many available in the urban environment of harmful compounds.
Among other plants used for landscaping, but with juicy fruit unfit for food, can be called Amur velvet — medium size tree with black foul-smelling berries, white snowberry having white with pulp-like foam, fruit. At large shrub — Elaeagnus angustifolia — elongated silver-green fruit is very tart, with a large stone. Little use in food as berries viburnum-gordoviny, beautiful small trees — cherry Maak.
Poisonous plants. The most poisonous view of our berry plants should be classified volchnik or Wolfberry (Fig. 14). This tall, up to a meter, a shrub with red berries are very widespread, growing normally solitary instances, or in small groups. Berry with one large seed. In volchnika toxic not only the fruit, but all parts of the plant. Other poisonous berries — raven eyes (Fig. 15). Berry had a single, dark blue. Grows mainly in old conifer plantations.