Without pre-planned route hiking trails do not exist.
"Let us go into the wide world" — this principle can be good for a walk in the woods or a park where people just want to be among nature, get some fresh air or find mushrooms, berries, and nuts. But this principle is not good for the tourism campaign because the campaign have other tasks — the achievement of sporting and educational purposes, and for which people go to campaign. But these tasks require that the movement occurred at certain points of the area of the campaign — and the knowledge of local history objects sport overcome. That's why at least gone camping and unconditional first challenge is accurate in space and time passage of the planned route, since the execution of other (major) problems is dependent on the performance of the first task.
However, not all tourists can do the first task — to pass exactly on track. There is always a risk to deviate to the side, stray off course due to a loss of orientation. Such a failure is threatening them with the loss of the sense of the campaign — the failure of his task, and sometimes it can lead to a sad end.
The reasons for these failures in orienteering routes are divided into subjective and objective (the latter will be discussed below). A subjective reasons — is the lack of basic knowledge of the topography (in particular — the topography of a given area, home of the campaign), the lack of experience in this field, the lack of observation. Art guide is that the person should at any given movement to realize where he was, where he arrived and where goes on, that is, to know their position in relation to the important points of the space for it — local history reference objects, points of sporting trials, settlements , stations, reservoirs, etc. — That is, the subjects of their local hiking interest.
Orienteering — a dynamic phenomenon: it is impossible to navigate and once to finish with this orientation to the rest of the campaign. Motion route and orientation — a single, continuous process. Just moving, we can (and should) be guided, and when motion completed, orientation also terminated.
By their nature, orientation — intelligent action based on the analysis of objective information that the visitor should be able to extract, sort and evaluate. It requires thinking man of his movements in space. In this case, a very important element of art orientation is the ability to question, do not trust a single feature, landmark, which, apparently, quite clearly indicates that you have come to where it was planned. You can not believe a single confirmation, need to sort out in my mind the mistakes you can avoid.
In textbooks on military topography holistic concept of orienteering is decomposed into three distinct skills:
1) The ability to determine the point on the map of its location at any given movement;
2) ability to plan the path of further progress towards the goal;
3) ability withstand the intended path.
There is a real possibility of loss of orientation in the campaigns team leader pushes the idea to take the complex issue. But this is not rational. Of course, to be safe, the tourist group would be convenient to take on the road with a man who knows by heart all route. But, first, such paid conductors to do, and, secondly, if they were, they do not have to. Not because of financial losses, and losses due to teacher: serving the main objectives of the hiking trails, orienteering, and in itself is a fascinating pastime for participants and a valuable educational tool. It brings an acute observation, develops logical thinking, instills a sense of responsibility for the case, assures participants in the practical value of the knowledge they receive in school in class or in class tourist circle.
That's why inadvisable to work in the field for orientation assumed the director himself or that of a permanent two or three students, and the rest would not have access to this complex case. As cooking over a fire, collecting local history materials, washing dishes, and orientation on the route must deal with all parties in turn — lead a group they are assigned to certain areas. It is better if this work students will perform in pairs — the conductor and his assistant (understudy). But in the group, except the duty of conductors must be a senior guide who will control duty.