Orientation

(German Orientierung, source: Lat, oriens — East), 1), n a m e s t n o s t, and the definition of its position (occupied point) on the horizon and surrounding objects (landmarks) can make the right choice of direction traffic and maintain it in a way.

In the north. and temperate latitudes, especially in winter, the direction of C. — J. quite accurately set the sun and the clock: clock (set local time), turn in the horizontal plane and directed the hour hand to the sun and the angle between the arrow and the numeral 12 is divided in half, with bisector coincides with the direction of St. — south (Fig. 1). In the South. p-tries (in the summer and in temperate latitudes) watch should be kept at 40 — 500 to the horizontal number 12 on my own in the middle of the arc between the hour hand and the numeral 12 is applied perpendicular to the dial of a match and turn together with the clock, while the shadow of the matches will not pass through center of the dial: at this point, figure 12 indicates the direction of the south

AROUND

AROUND

Fig. 1 Defining the horizon the sun and watch a — when horizontal hours b — tilting hours to the horizon on the corner, approximately corresponding to the latitude of the place of observation

Side of the horizon is determined by the Compasu, sun, moon, stars, especially local subjects.

In the north. and temperate latitudes, especially in winter, the direction of C. — J. quite accurately set the sun and the clock: clock (set local time), turn in the horizontal plane and directed the hour hand to the sun and the angle between the arrow and the numeral 12 is divided in half, with bisector coincides with the direction of St. — south (Fig. 1). In the South. p-tries (in the summer and in temperate latitudes) watch should be kept at 40 — 500 to the horizontal number 12 on my own in the middle of the arc between the hour hand and the numeral 12 is applied perpendicular to the dial of a match and turn together with the clock, while the shadow of the matches will not pass through center of the dial: at this point, figure 12 indicates the direction of the south

In the north. northern latitudes. lighter side of the southern night sky, there is the shortest shadow at noon, and it points to the direction of C. Wed, latitudes in the summer sun rises in the northeast and sets in the northwest, and in winter, respectively, in the southeast and southwest, with only in periods of equinox (around March 21 and September 23.) it rises exactly in the east and sets in the 3.

At night, guided by the North Star, to the paradise lies almost exactly on the extension of the Earth's axis and direction to the north with a deviation of not more than 30 (Fig. 2).

Many features of the local objects are due their location relative to the sun: the bark of most trees rougher on sowing. side (the pine rough cracked bark on the northeast. side of the trunk reaches a greater height) mosses and lichens cover the trees, rocks, wood, tile and slate roofs with abundant sowing. side; sinters conifer resin in hot weather with more southern. hand, sitting on the grass in the spring. outskirts glades thicker than the southern, summer soil near the big rocks. buildings, trees, dry to the touch with a more southern. side. in the forest-steppe zone on the southern slopes. Exposure dominated grass, and northern — forest, snow melts faster on the slopes directed to the south, leaving it formed notches with the tabs in the south. side, ravines, gullies, pits snow melts faster on the southern slopes. exposure, in the early spring around single trees, stumps and pillars formed in the snow hole, elongated in the south. direction, nests are almost always a southern. side of the tree, and getting them directed to the south, is more gentle. In large forests clearing. as a rule, lay in the direction of S. — J. and 3. — V., numbering blocks in them comes with 3. in the east and on the south, so that the figures on the poles at the intersection of the glades, the direction of the north coincides with the edge between two adjacent faces with the lowest numbers (Fig. 3). Altars Orthodox and Lutheran churches face the east, their ch. inputs — from the west., hand, raised the lower end. of the cross on the church turned to the north, the altars of churches are from the west. side; shrine facade facing the south, however, the use of local signs should be kept in mind that they are usually regional, and other conditions in a clear assessment of their 0. can lead to errors

AROUND

Figure 2 Determination of the North Star in the sky.

At 0. with the card first orient the map, then, comparing it with the area, finds the point of standing and determine the direction of motion. 0. map is the location of it in such a way as to sowing. card edge facing the S., and the lines on the map and directions were parallel to the corresponding lines and lines on the ground. On the territory. with a sufficient number of CMV guidelines and with good visibility map is oriented along the lines of terrain, and sight to the landmark. In the first case the orbital position of the observer must be on a linear object (the road, the path of the forest, the line of communication), that is, its position is approximately known, then the map is rotated so that the position of the linear mark and symbols of other objects consistent with their position on the area (Fig. 4a).

AROUND

Rice 3 Defining the horizon on quarterly column in a forest clearing.

Aiming at the landmark used in the case where the position occupied point accurately identified, but the terrain is clearly visible object, marked on the map. To these two points on the map are making line, then turn the map so that the edge line was directed to a selected landmark (Fig. 4b). In poor visibility (at night, in the woods, etc.), as well as on the ground, poor benchmarks for 0. Cards are a compass, to-ing placed on a map, with its diameter of 0 — 180'' should be parallel to the meridian C. — Y. Then the map with a compass (when liberated magnetic needle) turn as long as the northeast. end of the arrow set a zero count limb (or a count equal to the value magnetic declination); so on. map will be oriented along the magnetic (or true) meridian.

The position of the state is determined by comparing the map with the terrain, by eye on the surrounding objects, as well as sounding distances and notches in the next landmarks depicted on the map (see Ocular estimation). So, being on the linear object (road, link, etc.), the observer orients the map to find the subject areas shown on the map, along the edge of a ruler (shown attached to the sign landmark) endorses it and draws a straight line to the paradise at the intersection of the road with a sign (communication lines, etc.) will give the location of the point of standing. For greater reliability, it is recommended to use several. landmarks. During overnight routes and in areas of poor benchmarks resorted to movement on azimuth.

In mountain tourism is O. advantage. by elements of the relief with orografich. circuits, descriptions, photos or drawings, prepared by teams of precursors (compass play aux. role for so-called. makroorientirovaniya). In preparation for the campaign to have a clear idea of the relative positions of the valleys, ridges and peaks, provide relief and local objects, to-rye serve DOS. and intermediate benchmarks. Particular attention is given to linear landmarks — the rivers, the moraine ridges, rocky ridges, etc., positioning information during the night and in the fog. B case of poor visibility 0. also helps the slope areas.

When driving through the valleys in guidelines serve as point confluence DOS. Valley cross, narrowing valley cliffs. decomp. local objects. In winter, when many others. topographic features are hidden under the snow, 0. help cliffs and slopes. cliffs (the snow does not stay on them), as well as linear landmarks — valleys, rivers, and streams. Actions tour. Groups make it easier to arts. mikroorientiry as a broken branch, zatesov on trees, lined with stones rounds (pyramids), and at night — Traffic lights (by fire or light).

2) 0. sports, sport, including diff. games in fast transport in the field with simultaneous determination of its location. DOS. challenge the competitors — the passage of control points (CP) using a large-scale map and compass.

In the USSR, in the 2nd floor. 40s. competitions were held at 0. for tourists. Since the end. 50s. 0. develops as an independent. sport.

Lit.: Elahovsky SB, ski orienteering, Moscow, 1981; Roshchin AN, Orienteering, K., 1982, Aleshin VM Serebrenikov A V., tourist topography, M., 1985, Menchukov AE The world landmarks, 6th ed., Moscow, 1966 Military topography, Moscow, 1986; Orienteering. Rules of the competition, Moscow, 1987, Tourism and orienteering, M., 1987, Davydov MF, do not get lost in the campaign, Moscow, 1991

Добавить комментарий

Tags: , , , , , ,

Site "Survival in the wild nature", glad to see you. If you come to us, it means you want to get complete information about survival in a variety of extreme conditions, in emergency situations. Man, throughout the development, sought to preserve and protect themselves from the various negative factors surrounding it - cold, heat, hunger, dangerous animals and insects.

Site structure "Survival in the wild nature" is simple and logical, selecting a specific section, you will find information. You will find on our website recommendations and practical advice on survival, unique descriptions and pictures of animals and plants, turn-based scheme to trap wild animals, tests and reviews of travel gear, rare books on survival and wildlife. The site also has a large section devoted to video on survival survivalist-known professionals around the world.

The main theme of the site, "Survival in the wild nature" - is to be ready to be in the wild, and the ability to survive in extreme conditions.

The Survival in the wild nature - how correctly to behave, it having appeared in an emergency situation. Ability to find a way out from any situation: to kindle a fire, to put traps, to prepare food, to arrange dwelling and a lodging for the night; to learn to knit knots, to clear water, to be guided by districts, correctly to choose equipment, a knife. Also you can download directories to tourists, encyclopedias survivals, video Bear Grills to Survive at any cost (Man vs. Wild).