In Chapter 3, we have analyzed the causes of forced autonomous existence in nature. These reasons are due to natural disasters, accidents and emergency situations in the environment.
As in any other emergency situation, in a situation of forced autonomous existence of a favorable outcome depends primarily on the correct action from the first moment of its occurrence.
The main condition that determines the success of survival or death – spirit person (group) of a successful solution to this situation, his desire to return home, moral obligations to loved ones, the community, the knowledge that he has a lot to do.
From regular, deliberate, used to automaticity of action depends a favorable outcome, and often the life of a person (group) are in a situation of forced autonomous existence.
The first thing to do with it – try to calm down and objectively assess the situation. Analysis of many situations shows that very often the greatest danger to the victims is not the fait accompli, and the consequences that await them in the result of the first rash actions.
It is important at the time of an accident or emergency situation have a sense of self-control, not to succumb to fear, which is not conducive to concentration, making the right decisions.
The first acts under the influence of emotions are dictated by instinct of self-preservation and not always be correct. We must try to perceive danger in parts of them set priorities and perspective (which may come if …).
Consider a parallel action in emergency and extreme situations in the environment in a forced off-existence due to different reasons: vehicle accident in an uninhabited area, loss of orientation or effect accomplished a disaster.
Emergency usually comes on suddenly, and its development can not always be predicted. Therefore, the order of actions in these situations depends on the specific situation.
The experience of many people who had been in extreme situations of accidents of vehicles (aircraft, trains, vehicles, etc.), allowed us to determine the general scheme of priority actions in distress (Figure 5).
In the case of a forced landing, natural disasters (avalanches, debris flow threat, forest fire) must immediately leave the danger zone. It should make a safe area injured, try to take no risk to life all the available equipment, supplies of water and food. After that you should promptly discuss the situation, determine the safest place to chart a path of movement to it and relocate there. Any work on the site of the accident led the crew commander or head of the group.
Only finally making sure that all people and equipment, food and water are safe, proceed to the next steps.
In the event of an emergency situation in the environment (loss of orientation, keeping up with the group, a sharp deterioration
weather conditions) in no way be in conflict and relax. Endurance, self-control, discipline, and most importantly – the desire and ability to help you survive to win. The general scheme of priority action caught in extreme conditions in nature are shown in figure 6.
As in emergency, and in extreme situations in the environment priority actions should be aimed at providing medical assistance to the victims, and then to eliminate the threats or rapid withdrawal from it.
In parallel with medical care is necessary to develop a simple temporary shelters that can protect victims of wind, snow, rain or sun. Hypothermia or excessive overheating of the body can greatly complicate the situation. Then we need on top of all existing difficulties deal with the consequences of hypothermia and overheating (frostbite, general hypothermia, heat and sunstroke). In extreme cases, it will only aggravate the situation of the population. Special attention should be paid to the injured, weak, women and children.
We should not forget that the progressive failure can occur due to sudden changes in the weather. Therefore, we must constantly monitor her condition and anticipate the possibility of change.
With the same purpose are examined appearance, tidying his clothes and shoes. In an extreme situation, if you can not get outside help is important to keep yourself available on items, as it affects normal life in the future. Must make every effort to preserve teploresursy in the cold and internal water storage in the heat. If the clothes are in need of repair, it costs to produce immediately. It should take care of people who do not have enough clothing to protect against heat and cold, possibly distribute it among all those affected.
With a lack of clothing in the cold to use the existing property, which can protect against the cold. Everyone should know: the protection of the body from the cold in the first place will affect the cost of food.
The data collected in one place for all the lost output to a safe place objects, items of equipment (at first glance, perhaps, unnecessary), which can be useful in an emergency. They are sorted, separated necessary in the first place and temporarily unclaimed, or packed neatly in a safe place.
All things, equipment and personal property, up to the personal care, in an emergency situation into being the public and used to meet the needs of all victims. Combined into a single stock and all the food and water supplies, creating an emergency ration. Appointed responsible for the safety of things, equipment and products. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited them. After that, the natural question arises: what to do next?
For a decision on further action is necessary to estimate actual situation and answer the following questions.
1. If your location is not known, whether you adhere to a given (consistent) of the route at the time of the accident? If you find your absence, the initial search will be done in the area of your intended route.
2. Good to see the remains of the vehicle from the air or the surrounding hills? Can you make it so that they could see better?
3. Do the local authorities at their disposal sufficient forces and means for efficient search?
4. Do the weather conditions of the search-and-rescue aircraft and helicopters?
5. Do you fly over transit or other aircraft? If so, how often?
6. Do you know for sure your location? If so, how close you are to a community? What is the nature of the terrain between you and the community? What are the climatic conditions and the possible difficulties the proposed route of movement? How long will it take to gain access to this settlement?
7. Whether all members of a group or crew survive the transition in this area? Are there victims with serious injuries that require immediate medical attention?
8. Do you have enough stuff and gear for a long transition, do you have a compass, matches, etc.?
9. What are your food and water? Assess your emergency supplies and those that can be replenished from natural sources. Is there a good source of water near the site of your accident? Can you provide food in deserted areas after use up their emergency reserves?
10. What do you know about how to survive in the natural environment in which you find yourself? If you are not confident in their knowledge and skills, stay in place for three days.
There are two options for action: to remain at the scene and wait for help or try to get to the nearest village.
The decision to leave the scene taken in cases where:
-not sure that they know about the incident at the exit point (radius) of the group;
-exactly know the location of the nearest town, the distance to it is small and the state of health allows him to overcome;
-arose as a direct threat to life: a forest fire, break the ice field, flood, etc.;
-people can not be found by rescuers on this place because of the surrounding dense vegetation;
-within three days of no communication and assistance.
At the scene to indicate the direction of their care: to leave a note, put the arrow to kerf, tie bunches of grass, etc.
Before the release should be a careful investigation, to determine the direction of the exit, pack and prepare to carry everything you need (maybe even a fire if no matches).
Having taken the decision to leave the scene, you must follow certain rules (Figure 7).
Decision to remain at the scene made if:
-distress signal or a message that the scene is transmitted by radio alarm;
-the scene is not precisely defined, and the rugged terrain unfamiliar (mountains, forests, deep ravines, swamps, a thick layer of snow, etc.);
Scheme 7. Procedure for making a decision to withdraw from the scene and the sequence of their execution
Figure 8. Procedure for making a decision to remain at the scene and the sequence of their execution
-direction of human settlements and the distance to them is unknown;
-most people can not walk because of injuries or diseases.
Having made the decision to remain at the scene, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rules of safe behavior that will survive and wait for emergency assistance (Figure 8).
In a makeshift camp, building a safe shelter improvised, can create conditions for normal rest, long-term preservation of normal life, care for the sick and wounded. Being in one place for easier to organize the collection of edible plants, berries, fishing and hunting.
To organize such camps should develop a detailed action plan that includes:
1) selection of the most suitable place to camp with the terrain, the proximity of firewood and water, lack of hazards on its territory (dead wood, rock falls, avalanches, flooding, etc.);
2) planning the camp: the definition of a place for building a temporary but safe houses, places for food preparation, food storage, equipment, garbage and toilets;
3) identification of the type of temporary shelters, according to the capabilities and abilities of local "builders";
4) harvest and the beginning of construction of the shelter;
5) preparing a site for a fire, harvesting enough firewood and making a fire.
For successful implementation of the plan, and to build a normal climate in the group must allocate responsibilities among all its members with regard to their health and abilities. You can see that operations are performed in the same way as in ordinary tourist group. Then it is clear that we must provide the people responsible for the construction of housing, mining and foraging, breeding, maintenance of fire and cooking hot food, medical care, etc.
In this indispensable condition – everyone should have a mission. This is not a far-fetched claim. The fact is that the success of survival in an emergency situation is determined by abilities and capabilities of not only each member of a group, but by the whole group. However, the livelihoods of the group depends on the physical and mental condition of each group member. Therefore, from the very first moments of the onset of the accident to make efforts (and sometimes considerable) to save the moral standing of the state as a whole and each member individually.
Prerequisite of successful action in an emergency situation is the presence of the head. It can be a full-time director – the crew commander, head of the tourist group. In their absence, they could become one of the most qualified people, competent person who can rally the team and to direct its efforts to survive in an emergency. It can be a person familiar with the rules of survival – hikers, hunters, geologist.
With leadership team to get rid of the negative manifestations of human behavior, such as panic, confusion, diffidence, disunity in the actions, selfishness and dependency. Otherwise, the inevitable conflicts, it would seem, for the most frivolous reasons. Do not give them a break, gain strength and split the group – a task manager. This task will help avoid many additional to the existing troubles.
In an accident of the vehicle in the group may be completely different people. However, even members of the tourist group that arrived in an extreme situation, may show previously unknown quality. When defining the role of the head of a lot depends on the group. Tolerance for weakness or irritation of others, the ability to reconcile the first to help avoid conflicts that destroy the unity of the group. Although there are conflicts are created, making it possible to find the best solution to a problem. In an extreme situation where the nerves are all on edge, usually destructive conflicts.
Monarchy of the leader does not constitute a waiver of the Board with the group on a matter. Listening to them – a great advantage head. However, disagreeing with the arguments of the interlocutors, it must convincingly explain the reasons of their own solutions.
Summarizing the description of the priority actions of the person (group) who is in an extreme situation forced autonomous existence, general conclusion can be made about the rules of conduct, based on an analysis of such situations by specialists – the rescuers. When injected into the extreme situation it is necessary:
be able to foresee the danger;
be able to control their behavior;
to be independent;
be able to think and to think;
to make quick decisions;
be persistent and stubborn when it is needed;
to be able to submit, if necessary;
Do not despair if there are no more strength to fight for their lives;
look for other ways, before finally surrender, and … even then, do not give up.
Thus, a favorable outcome in a crisis depends on the person, of his will, concentration, discipline, physical fitness, and most importantly – the ability to act in an emergency situation.