It's not hard to lose the orientation of the debris of dead trees in the forest thicket overgrown with thick bushes, where the untrained eye everything seems monotonous green chaos and difficult to distinguish conspicuous terrain and the dissimilarity of the situation. Astray've both beginners and experience tells taezhnikam.
In such cases, people will start trying to mind a variety of ways of orienteering. He recalls how on the countries of the world are building their dwelling ants, and where abundant stands resin on the bark, and which side of the trees are covered with thick moss. However, in all honesty, I must say that even a very good knowledge of all these romantic will not replace the compass.
With this wonderful device, most of us first met in high school. Constructed in XIX century Russian military topographer Peter Hadrian, it survives today almost unchanged. At one time it was made of brass, now it was replaced by a plastic. This compass can be found in most sporting goods stores. Despite its age and some old-fashioned compass Hadrian is still used by many travelers.
On the limb of the compass -120 divisions, that is, one unit corresponds to three degrees. Long Dash coated luminous composition – is the origin of divisions. Every fifteen degrees on the limb caused triangle and above the printed numbers – the number of degrees from zero. In addition, there are three points of glow in the dark and the letters under it, to the parties horizon (B, S, 3). Sighting ring has two plastic tabs – eye and fly, by which the inside of the ring under the glass are two triangular protrusion, phosphor coated. The northern end of the arrow is also coated with glow in the dark composition. Arrow relies on a needle and rotates on it.
To reduce friction on the needle direction and improve the accuracy compass needle set into the center of a small stone-lens with a slight indentation for the needle. Arrow locking clip – springy metal plate folded in half. If you pull it out through the slot in the housing, the ends of the plate are clamped, the arrow is released – the compass is ready. When the clip is pushed into the compass, its ends are straightened and pressed the arrow to the glass.
However, Hadrian's compass essentially pushed modern liquid compasses. Working with them is much easier and more convenient. The arrow of the compass is ploskotsilindricheskoy flask with a special liquid (anti-static liquid), allowing a compass needle mounted to the north for a few seconds (in some models less than a second).
At present in the Russian market are compasses companies such as Swedish Silva, Suunto and Finnish otechestvestvennaya Moscompass. Their characteristics are similar, but the prices for the products of the company Moscompass much lower.
The arrow in the modern compass is made of plastic, and in its center is placed a powerful magnet. This is done in order to reduce installation time and increase accuracy arrow compass. The northern end of the arrow is usually painted over red, south can be white, green, black. Fluorescent coating gives the opportunity to work with a compass in the dark. Limbo is a more accurate scale division (up to two degrees) than the compass of Hadrian. At the bottom of the transparent bulb applied guides that help orient the map and accurately set the azimuth.
Manufacturers, based primarily on the needs of orienteering, have focused their efforts on reducing the installation time in the direction of the arrow to the north (we are talking about fractions of a second) and its stable position, even on the run, which is crucial in the sport, but not so important in the journey. Therefore, most of the models compass is mainly for orienteering and has a very simplified design with a very limited set of functions.
A few years ago, among the Russian travelers was very popular compass East German production of "Sport-4". This is one of the most versatile compass, sold in Russia. The base of this compass was fitted with a ruler for scale 1:15000, millimeter ruler and a magnifying glass to zoom in three and a half times, dual illuminated label to indicate directions, lines for guiding compass. At the bottom of the flask Compass also provides guides and dual bright lines to mark the areas to the north. Now the "Sport-4" in our stores is not for sale, but by choosing a compass to travel, you need to look for something similar.
Of the compass, which are sometimes used in the expeditions, must mention the geological and artillery.
Geological compass is designed primarily to measure the angles and directions of falling rocks. In this case, the compass has to focus not on any subject, but for themselves. This is easier to do if the interchange east and west on the limb compass. It was arranged and limb geological compass – it must be borne in mind, defining the horizon. To make it easier to navigate the terrain, the compass mirror inserted with a special thread. In addition, geological compass equipped with protractor to determine the angles of incidence of the layers and the arrow clip that secures them in position. One side of the compass can serve as a ruler – it provides centimeter and millimeter division. The chassis is built level – a vial of liquid droplets, which allows to use the device on weight or on uneven terrain while maintaining confidence that the compass is strictly parallel to the earth's surface and measurements are correct.
Artillery compass is one hundred thousandth of the price of division and is graduated clockwise. It is constructed in such a way that his sighting device remains stationary, while the scale can be rotated. This makes it possible, without changing the position of the compass, quickly combine zero division limb from the north end of the needle, not knocking it. The device is equipped with hinged lid with mirror, which allows for the sight to monitor the situation and take a compass reading on the scale.
Methods for determining the magnetic bearing with different compasses have some special features.
Thus, the compass of Hadrian and similar compasses raise with the liberated magnetic needle at a height of 10-12 inches below eye level, zero bar compass is brought under its northern end, then the other arm, knocking the arrow position and rotatable housing cover with the line of sight toward on the subject. Closely align these areas achieve multiple looks from line of sight to the object and back. You do not have to lift a compass to eye level, because in this case it strays orientation and error rate increases. Measure the magnetic bearing of the compass can Hadrian up two or three degrees.
The accuracy of magnetic bearing compass, mirror cover is located a bit higher. In this case, a compass with a 45-degree recline on the mirror is raised to eye level, on the line of sight through the center of the compass and the slot in the base of the mirror cover, the device is sent to the target. Then the zero bar compass aligned with the northern end of the arrow, and read off the angle of the limb against the line of sight at the bottom of the cover. Mirror cover allows you to control the orientation of the compass.
To find the direction of the specified azimuth, all operations are performed in reverse order.
Thus, the compass is oriented and about Hadrian determine the direction on the ground, then turned in the direction of the compass, and holding at 10-12 inches below eye level, just orient it and endorse on the ground mounted magnetic azimuth. In order not to get lost in the line of sight of a well-marked point of reference.
Compass equipped with a mirror, held at eye level and lovora Chiva-looking in the mirror, as long as the northern end of the arrow will not appear on a null reference limb. Then, on the line of sight to notice a landmark direction to which will be installed in the direction of the magnetic bearing limb.
Limb some imported compass is broken not by 360 °, and 32 marine rumba. In such compass cardinal point are designated as follows – North – North (I), South – Zuid (S), East – East (0), the West – West (W). Half-cardinal points correspond to a combination of two letters, for example, the north-west – north-west (NW) and south-east-south-east (SO). Intermediate rumba between the main and quarter are indicated by three letters – the east-south-east – east-south-east (0S0).
Whatever the design may have been the compass, it should be protected from shock (especially liquid, the body which has the shape of a plate, and therefore quite fragile). It is best not to wear a compass in the outer pockets or on the hand, where it can easily be broken, and tied lace, put on his neck, removing the inner pocket or bosom. It is unsafe for the compass near large steel objects – saws, axes and knives.
The most important part of any compass – magnetic needle. For a rough orientation in the area is already enough it one. Therefore, in all cases where the compass is broken, broken, and the scale of its body, it is necessary to keep the arrow.
The easiest way to hang the arrow on any non-twisted thread and wait until it is established along the north-south line. Arrow can be spread on a needle, dry fish bone, sharp splinter. However, the use of such a device is not very convenient, it is difficult to determine the degree count, and the arrow will respond to the slightest breeze.
Therefore it is better from a piece of wood cut housing improvised compass to stick a needle eye down and impose on it an arrow. A piece of plastic film that is stretched over the body, will play the role of protective glass. The arrow should be located so that the film would not let her fly off the needle and at the same time does not slow needle movement – that is just the way it is provided in this compass. Locking clip can be a polyethylene rope stretched over and planted it under a piece of bark, resting in the middle of the arrow.
In cases where the compass hurt so much that you can not even use the arrow, or when it does is lost, you can try to determine the compass, magnetized steel needle, a pin or a razor blade.
Of course, it is good to magnetize any needles or pins before leaving home, compared them with a compass and mark the northern end of the paint. However, such exceptional foresight is rare. So we have to magnetize a needle, when the situation requires. To do this, they rather stick for 30-40 minutes to a magnet, which is in the dynamics of the receiver or headphones. You can magnetize a needle wound around the wire, the ends of which must be connected to the terminals of the battery or the battery. The greater the coils wound on the tip, the better. If the wire insulation is deprived, the needle must first wrap some insulating material. In order to magnetize a needle, take at least ten minutes. End of the needle, is at the negative terminal of the battery, will meet the north end of a compass needle.
Magnetized steel needle and if some time to rub it in one direction on a silk cloth, razor blade, in addition to all of these methods, you can try to magnetize careful rubbing his palm. However, both methods give very small magnetization, which does not last long, and magnetized objects in this way are able to specify the direction of the north, just being hung on a string.
Magnetized needle to gently rub on your hair or on your fingers and gently placed on the water surface. As a rule, small sewing needle does not sink and gradually unfolding in the north to the south. More massive needle to stick in a piece of bark, foam, can be passed through a straw, put on a small piece of paper or a plant.
By making a "water" compass, we must remember that the water tank must be of non-magnetic materials. Otherwise, all indications arrows will completely distorted.
For this improvised compass is better to use some round capacity. In this case, it is possible to arrange the scale and fine-tuned in a degree reading. To do this you need to take a string, wrap it around the vessel so that the thread is exactly equal to the length of the circumference. Adding the thread, you can find the middle and divide the circle into four parts just folded again – divided into eight parts and so on.
In cases where the compass is lost and make it there is no way to refer to the astronomical methods of determining the horizon. Orient may help in the first place, the Sun, the Moon and the North Star. Methods for determining the horizon with these heavenly bodies many remember from school, and monitor them more accessible and simple at the same time reliable.
On a sunny day, the travelers should have no problem with the definition of the horizon. It is known that in the summer the sun rises around the north-east, and sits approximately in the north-west, in the winter – in the south-east and south-west respectively. At noon, the sun is in the south (due to transfer Hi «summer" and "winter" time noon comes in 13 hours in summer and 14 hours in the winter), and the shadows of all objects are focused precisely from south to north. Knowing that the sun moves in an hour at 15 ° (thirty their apparent diameters), it is easy to determine the position of the light at any time.
Sometimes convenient to maintain the route is not for the sun, and the shadows. For this we need only note the angle that the direction of movement of travelers, and the shadows cast by the trees, and then constantly maintain it, do not forget to correct for movement of the sun.
Comparing the position of the sun with a watch or clock and trying to determine the side of the horizon it is important to remember that the clock should be mounted on local (CST) time. Therefore it is better immediately