Toxic shellfish

Under normal conditions, almost all shellfish that inhabit the seas and oceans, are edible, but in some cases, some of them are dangerous to humans. This strange transformation — the result of a bacterial infection or shellfish due to the fact that, pi-hiding toxic dinoflagellates, they become toxic properties.

These mollusks are cockles (Cardium edule), donaks (Donax serra), spizula (Spisula solidissima), blue shell (Schizothaerus nuttalli), Mia (Mya arenaria), the California mussel (Mytilus californianus), edible mussels (Mytilys edulis), volsella (Volsella modiolus), etc.

Shellfish poisoning can occur by the type of gastrointestinal disorders — nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, arising cherez10-12 hours after ingestion, for allergic type — with redness and swelling of the skin, minor skin rash, itching, headache, swollen language. The most severe form is a paralytic. It is characterized by the appearance of burning and itching lips, tongue, gums. These

.join dizziness, joint pain, impaired swallowing, drooling. Often develop paralysis of the muscles. In severe cases of poisoning death of the victim end.

When collecting shellfish and crustaceans in shallow tropical coasts inadvertently attract the attention of large, brightly colored shells that hide their fearsome inhabitants — toxic shellfish cone. They are representatives of the many (over 1,500 species) of the family Conidae. Dimensions of shells ranging from 6 to 230 mm, color of their varied and intricate, but they all have a distinctive conical shape. The most dangerous are: geographic cone (C. Geographus), whose large sink beautiful creamy white color decorated with brown spots and stripes, C. magus with small whitish mottled shells, C. stercusmuscarum, whose whitish shell strewn with black dots, C. catus having a black shell with white spots, brown and blue C. monachus.

Among the highly toxic relates C. tulira. His small, twisted the cone shell, blue, pink or reddish-brown, covered with white and brown dots and spirals. Marble Cone (S. mar-moreus) can be identified by a large white sink with numerous triangular black spots, giving it marbling. Shining like a polished shell S. textil different colorful patterns of brown and white dots and spirals.

The cones are very active when they were touched in their habitat. Their apparatus consists of a toxic venom gland associated duct hard proboscis radula Turk, located at the narrow end of the shell, with sharp spines, mollusk replacing teeth. If you take the conch in hand, clam instantly puts Radulov and plunges into the body spikes. Followed by a sharp pang, shall communicate unconscious pain, numbness of fingers, palpitations, shortness of breath, and sometimes paralysis. In the Pacific Islands Deaths of collectors of shells from the injection cones.

To toxic shellfish also carry terebru (Terebra maculata). Its shell, like a long, narrow cone, has a peculiar pattern in the form of numerous white spots scattered on the brown or black background.;

Little known in Europe, but is widespread in the Australian coast blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochaena maculosa). This is a small animal weighing from 10 to 100 g, no larger than 20-200 mm, yellow-brown with tentacles covered with rings, bands, is found in small pools and lakes on the shore. When the animal is raised, rings and bands get bright blue iridescent shade that attracts bathers. If you inadvertently take it in hand, the animal may bite. The bite is almost palpable, but after a short while the poison takes effect, causing respiratory failure. The area around the bite swells, there are petechial hemorrhages. If the victim does not die from respiratory paralysis, then for 6 hours was an acute pain, accompanied by vomiting, difficulty breathing, speech, diplopia (doubling of the subject matter), muscle cramps, bleeding from the wound. Assistance is to carry out artificial respiration, cardiac massage, subcutaneous and exciting heart of breath.

A danger to humans are sea urchins (Echinoadea), coated with a solid shell of the many needles. They are very thin, poisonous stings and each in his own way.

The needles are so sharp and fragile that, penetrating deep into the skin, immediately break off and remove them from the wound is extremely difficult. In addition to needles, hedgehogs are armed with small grasping organs — peditsillyariyami scattered at the base of the needles.

Poison sea urchin is not dangerous, but it causes a sharp pain at the injection site. And soon there are redness, swelling, and sometimes there is a loss of sensitivity and secondary infection.

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