Facilitate the preparation of food can knowing the weight and volume ratios listed below. In a normal half-liter mug includes (in grams): monkey — 370, -400 buckwheat, millet — 410, oatmeal — 350, peas — 420, noodles (scrap-tion) and vermicelli — 210. In a tablespoon full of running out to the edges, is placed (in grams) butter (ghee or butter) — 15, of sugar — 12, condensed milk — 15, milk — 8, salt — 15.
Rice and buckwheat cooked long. Before going buckwheat should be wiry and sifted, millet — washed and dried. Little margin semolina required for when the weather conditions are cooking is limited.
Cook the tasty porridge helps knowing the ratio of water and grains during cooking, given in the table.
Number of cups of water
a mug of cereal
ABILITY cooking in minutes
Beans, beans, peas
To prepare the soup must take cereal or pasta at the rate of 30-40 grams per liter of water, semolina — less grams 20-25.
Semolina can be boiled in water, mixed with milk or water and milk in any proportions. Grits in salted boiling water poured a thin stream, stirring vigorously all the time, to avoid forming lumps. After that, she had to give even cook on low heat for about ten minutes. We must remember that, semolina after filling in boiling water very quickly as if ready to take form. Therefore, even very experienced travelers remove it by holding the fire just two minutes, and then it turns damp mess.
If you need to cook crisp rice, in salted boiling water poured rice and then cook it 18-20 minutes, no more. All this time the water should be boiling, but not violently, or it may boil over before the rice is cooked. By the way, that did not happen, the water can take a lot more than was stated above — there meaning the usual mess. 2-3 minutes before the end of cooking the porridge add a bay leaf and a few peppercorns, then remove from the heat and poured all the water.
To cook sticky rice porridge, rice poured into salted boiling water, bring to a boil and cook for about fifteen minutes, then drain the excess water, add milk and sugar to taste. After that you need to put more minutes to cook porridge for 8-10 minutes on low heat or on charcoal. If you need to put in the porridge prunes, you have to soak in boiling water so that it swelled. Note that, if conditions permit, then the two cooking methods to brewing rice is rinsed in cold water.
Buckwheat as well as rice, can be boiled in two ways, then it will either be in the form of friable or viscous mush. In the first case, previously little rump roast in the pan, or the bottom of a baking pan free. After that cereal grains are harder, they do not crack and fall apart during cooking. The dealer then poured salt in boiling water and cook until tender. Normally it takes 30-40 minutes. When cooking crumbly buckwheat is not necessary so vigilant on the clock, as in the preparation of loose rice. Willingness cereal determined by eye and taste. It should be noted that if the loose rice takes more water, then crumbly buckwheat water should take less, namely — 2-3 cups a mug of cereal.
Feature cooking millet porridge is as follows. Millet contains fasciculi that gives the bitter taste of porridge. So before cooking grits should be thoroughly washed in the cold, but better — in warm water, rubbing the palms. Thus, wheat is washed 3-5 times, each time pouring the water. If conditions do not allow a camp wash millet, some other better cook porridge and millet postponed to another time. After millet thoroughly rinsed, it can cook, having previously following: Pour boiling water over wheat so that the water covered his little, quickly bring to a boil and drain.
Vermicelli, like rice, cooking should strictly by the hour. Her fall asleep in salty boiling water, bring to a boil and boil exactly 8 minutes and then drained. If noodles digest will gruel. There it is, of course, possible, but it is unlikely to be a tasty dish.
Peas, beans, and beans do not cook in the pre-salt water. They are already cooked for a long time — up to 3 hours. Because of the long cooking them usually use either on a day's rest, or in stationary camps, or in cases where the group disperses for assignments on radial routes, while others remain at base camp for cooking. For the rich, busy marching day peas, beans and legumes are not suitable — too much time is their cooking.
Cakes and bread. 1-2 tablespoons of dry yeast to sleep in a quarter cup of warm water, add a tablespoon of sugar and place for 1-2 hours in a warm place by the fire. Knead the dough in a warm water (one part water to four parts flour) and leave for a few hours (usually overnight). Cakes raw should not be thicker than 1-2 cm before putting bread in the pan, put it briefly near the fire to make the dough rise. If there is no cover from the pan using buckets, stones.
Porridge crackers. In bowl with white breadcrumbs pour some water and heated on a fire to crackers become soft and hot. Then add the butter and mix.
Cold porridge rusks crumbs. Is prepared — in the absence of fire — of rusks crumbs substituted by on condensed milk with cocoa.
Bread and cakes can be baked from flour, which is obtained by appropriate treatment oak acorns. Acorns are cleaned, cut into four pieces and fill with water. Soak for 2 days, changing the water at least 3 times a day. Then with cold water and bring to a boil. After that crushed acorns, pour a thin layer of cloth and dried first in air and then over the fire. Dried grind acorns (pounded) into flour. It should be borne in mind that the dough from acorn flour when baking much crumbles. A cake baked from such a test in a pan (iron sheet), before the turn, must be covered with another pan (leaf), and, pressing, turn both pans or both sheets.
Baked potato. As is most nutritious peel potatoes, do not peel it, but only good wash. When land is under fire is well warmed and accumulated ash, burning wood should move quickly to make a small indentation, pour it hot ashes, lay on top of the potatoes and cover with ashes, and then burning firebrands. Baked potatoes for 20-25 minutes.
There is another, less well-known method: In a large tin can or bucket poured clean dry sand, buried in a bucket of potatoes and surrounded by hot coals. After about an hour the potatoes ready.
Baked eggs. Eggs pre wash, wipe off and go in the not too hot ash (70 — 80 ° C), otherwise they will burst.
Baked fish. The cleaned and gutted fish are washed in cold water, salt inside and outside, a large cut in two by a ridge and apply oil to the inside, wrapped in two layers of parchment soaked in water on both sides (if no parchment, can be wrapped in green leaves ), and put in enough hot ash. After 15-20 minutes, take out, check the fork ready. In unheated ash big fish is baked for 40-50 minutes.
Fish liver in the ground. After cleaning the scales and viscera, fish rubbed with salt, grease, wrapped in a clean cloth soaked in vegetable oil well, tied with string or bast and buried in a small hole (the size of the fish), so that a layer of earth was not thicker than three fingers. Rammed earth and at this point bonfire. An hour later, the fish is ready.
Fish, grilled in the clay. Prepared fish rubbed with salt inside and out, coated with oil, wrapped in maple leaves. Then in a clean cloth soaked in oil, tied with string, clay and put in hot ashes. From time to time, carefully turn over. Willingness of fish can be identified by cracking clay.
Boiled fish with garlic. Cleaned fish (any fine), put onions in a pot, cover with water, hung over the fire and bring to a boil. Then it was removed, the broth, add salt, bay leaf, allspice and again bring to a boil. Pike, walleye or perch cleaned of scales, guts and gills, rub with salt, cut into large chunks, put it in a pot and cook until done. Chopped garlic rub with salt, put in a cup, pour broth, stir well and pour this mixture cooked pieces of fish.
Ear. Small fish wrapped in a bag or hang over the gills to the stick and put it in boiling water. (Before cooking it is not clean — for better adhesion, and gutting and thoroughly washed, the perch gills removed.) After 30 minutes, put it in a new batch of fish broth, and so repeated several times. Then put large chunks of fish, potatoes, onions, salt, cook for 20 minutes, cover greens — and an ear ready.
Nettle soup. Young nettle leaves for 2-3 minutes steep drop in boiling water. Remove and let drain. Lightly fry in butter chopped "sleepers" leek or green onion and wheat flour. Combine with chopped nettles, fry a bit of everything together and pour hot water. Cook, stirring, for 25-30 minutes. Add sifted through and well-washed rice, and prisolit cook another 15 minutes. In the finished soup add finely crumbled boiled egg.
Green soup of sorrel. Sorrel sort, wash and put in a pot, pour hot water and hang it over the fire. After boiling water, drain and squeeze out the sorrel and finely chop. Saute onion in butter, add flour and stir fry for 1-2 minutes, then combine with the broth, add the spices and cook for 5-10 minutes. Put the sorrel and salt and cook for another 10 minutes. Green soup with sour cream and good finely chopped tough egg.
Mushroom soup fast food. Mushrooms cut into slices and fry in heated oil pan, add the chopped onion. When it is tender, put the flour, chopped tomatoes or tomato puree and fry gently. Then pour hot water or mushroom broth, add the rice and cook until cooked.
Potato soup with fresh meat. Cook the meat broth. Peeled onion slice and fry in butter or fat, remove from broth. Sliced potatoes with fried onions put into the boiling broth, add salt, bay leaf, pepper, and cook for 25-30 minutes. Potato soup can be cooked not only in meat, but also in fish broth. 1.5 kg of meat — 3 kg of potatoes, 0.5 kg of onions, 6 tablespoons butter.
Soup with meat or canned fish. Boil water for vegetable soup (potato, cabbage), as indicated above; put meat (fish), canned food and give it a boil. Before use, it is recommended to add fresh herbs (parsley, dill). To 3 cans of meat (beef, pork, lamb) or fish (perch, bream, sturgeon) — 2 kg of various vegetables, 5-6 liters of water, 5 tablespoons of oil.
Broth with meat cubes. In a pot put bouillon cubes (one per 1 cube in a glass of liquid), pour boiling water, stir and bring to a boil and use as a clear broth made from meat.
Broth with pasta. Vermicelli, noodles, ears or asterisks omitted for 2-3 minutes in boiling water, then discard in a colander and a clear shift in the boiling broth and cook until tender 15-20 minutes.
Kebab. Lamb washed, cut into pieces and put in vinegar for 10-12 hours. Then threaded onto a skewer (cleaning rod, wire, rod), alternating slices of meat with sliced onions, salt and sprinkle with pepper and grill over coals, basting meat for juicy vinegar in which it is soaked. Supports for skewers are stones, driftwood, sod. Skewer to be turned periodically to pieces fried evenly on all sides. Cook barbecue served sprinkled with finely chopped dill and parsley or tomatoes. If there is no lamb, you can use other meats.
Skewers of mushrooms. On thin new twigs, bark-free, strung cap mushrooms, syroezhek, aspen, boletus without holding them close to each other, a little salt and fry in the dying coals of a campfire.
Fried mushrooms. Mushrooms clean, rinse, scalded with hot water and dry. Cut into large slices, add salt and fry on all sides in the heated skillet in butter. After that, sprinkle with flour and fry again. 2 kg of fresh mushrooms 15-20 tablespoons of flour, 8 — 10 tablespoons of butter. Can fry mushrooms and potatoes, putting it in 10-15 minutes before the mushrooms are ready.
Ragout of mushrooms. Washed, coarsely chopped fresh mushrooms sprinkle with flour and cook until tender in butter, adding a little water, salt and pepper (the sauce should be very thick.)
Salad of dandelions. Dandelion leaves hold for 30 minutes in cold salted water, then chop. Finely chop the green onions and parsley. Mix, fill with sunflower oil, salt, add vinegar to taste, sprinkle with chopped dill.
Ice cream out of snow. Grained or take fresh snow (firn not do), stir thoroughly and rub with condensed milk. Sugar, cocoa, fruit juice (extract) are added to taste.
Field tea. The leaves, flowers or fruit of some plants, with a pleasant smell, can replace tea. Slightly dried and dried collection brewed and tantalized for hours. Surrogates such tea leaves can serve as raspberries, strawberries, currants, willow-herb, leaves and fruits of blackberry, wild rose, apple.
Berry herbal tea. Freshly picked strawberries or dried leaves (1 part), raspberries (part 1), black currant (0.2 parts), herb St. John's wort (1 part), thyme (0.1 — 0.2 parts), rinse in cold water and put in bucket or kettle of hot water, boil for 5-10 minutes, then add sugar to taste or honey.
What can replace the coffee beans? For many centuries, chicory root is commonly used as a coffee substitute. Drink chicory cook simple. Rhizome washed, cut up and down, to dry. Then the roots fry until brown, chop. The resulting powder is brewed in the same way and in the same proportions as regular coffee.
Coffee substitute ordinary dandelion roots. Fried sweet redness dandelion roots, as contained in the roots of sugar during roasting karameliziruetsya gives flavor and color of coffee concoctions.
Coffee drink can be made from peeled and roasted to a uniform dark-brown acorns. This drink is very useful: acorns contain a lot of proteins, sugars, fatty oil and starch.
Delicious coffee is from a well-roasted acorns, or with the addition of chicory, dandelion root and milk hazelnut. This coffee is not only reminiscent of the taste and color of real coffee, but also valuable for its nutritional value.