Duffle 80 years ago

Author: V. Semenov

Moscow – Leningrad, State Publishing House, 1929


Preface Proletarian Literature tourism – a tool of the Cultural Revolution Clothing Footwear tourist duffle 1. Group equipment 2. Accouterments

Vacation attract more and more working people of the Soviet Union. The October Revolution opened the masses all the roads leading to the knowledge and the new socialist culture. In the struggle for this culture, in the difficult struggle for a new world proletariat to re myself and the whole mass of the working people. They become conscious of the cultural revolution soldiers, active builders of socialism.

Our tourism is one of the instruments of the cultural revolution. The world that we are building the kind of life that we do not always know enough of books and newspapers while traveling stands before us in all its powerful beauty, with all its dips and peaks.

While traveling, we sharpen our vision and thought, as if we are trying to feel sensitive fingers all that surrounds us. Trip for us – like the university. "Travel to work – and the resort, and the school culture" – this speaks of the young proletarian tourism that Strakhov (Plant. Frunze, Moscow).

But Soviet tourists pass through their country, not as spectators. Proletarian tourist is not only taking the trip all that it can give – knowledge, relaxation, quenching – it seeks to extract the highest benefit from a trip to the state: recognizing clearly the country, tourists learn to build it, steeling your will and muscle, the tourist will conscious and the strongest fighter in the upcoming revolutionary battles, meeting on the way to new types and forms of labor, economic, cultural and social work – a tourist returning from a trip, use this experience to make a new life around him to redo it, leading diaries in a way, tourists will create tens of thousands of outstanding documents, which already has a very "real life."

Finally tourists use their rest days and holidays, use their travel in order to carry on the way public – good work. What really is – quite clearly says that a letter Ilina (cell Society proletarian tourism Mechanical Plant. Baryshnikov Orekhovo – Zuevo).

"In the winter, all our work was to ski trips. We combined tourism with social work. Realized four campaign: two – for the elections to the Soviets, one – on the anniversary of the Red Army – for strengthening the country's defense and the fourth – the last campaign – for the harvest.

In the campaigns spent more than a dozen meetings, seven meetings. Repaired 12 agricultural machines …

So – all the days of our vacation hiking skiing "Myrtoma" had been in the service of not only tourism, but also for the public. "

It is hoped that those items of tourist equipment, which are described in the book that Semenov also be "in the service of not only tourism, but also for the public." Few uvesit themselves flasks and other tourism armor. Tourist tourists alike. We do not need a smug philistine who looks at the bottom of the mountain, and the people – from the top. We need a tourist – the public man, who in the days of rest does not clear itself from the responsibility of true citizen of the USSR.

Education and training of such tourists – community members and is one of the main objectives of the Society for Proletarian Tourism. Only the tourists can meet and make our slogan

"The proletarian tourism – a tool of cultural revolution."

May 10, 1929

Mr. Bergman.

Only then will the success journey will be provided.

On specific issues hiking (nutrition, exercise, the device camps, etc.), you can find instructions in the following books:

"The first book of the tourist", ed. "Young Guard", p. 1 p. 65 K.

Barkhash L., Satellite tourist, ed. "Moscow Worker", p. 60 kopeks.

Evtyuhov N., Camp life, ed. magazine "In the workshop of nature," p. 50 kopecks.

Pogrebetsky M., tour assistance, ed. "Journal of Physical Education", Kharkov, p. 75 kopecks.

I. Braginskii, Summer walks, Guise, p. 30 kopecks.

Stepanov, D., Memo working tourist, Guise, p. 20 kopecks.

Kazachkov A. How to use cards, Guise, p. 30 kopecks.

V. Semenov, mountaineering, ed. Young Guard.

Before you go on a trip, you need to prepare for it: to develop the route and pick up equipment. Camping equipment we call those things that allow tourists to spend with great amenities conceived journey, protect yourself from unnecessary hardship, their health from the harmful effects of climate and weather, as well as with greater chances of success in overcoming the obstacles that may be in your path.

Therefore, equipment should be in full compliance with the conditions in which supposed to be a tourist during his travels. If the route is on the Black Sea coast, it is unlikely that you should bring warm clothes or ice pick. Conversely, in the mountains, where the temperature difference between day and night temperatures can be high – warm clothing is needed, and the glaciers ice pick – one of the most important items of equipment. The tourist should carefully prepare their gear, so you do not suffer or – for the extra stuff, a heavy burden borne by the shoulders, or vice versa, of – for lack of subject matter, it is necessary. Therefore, the study of the route along the way to determine what equipment and also that the selected route required. But also a reasonable selection of equipment and the ability to be more tourists to properly handle them.

Before proceeding to the description of the individual items of equipment, it should be noted that we have in mind mainly the tourist – a pedestrian, but most of the items of equipment used by a pedestrian, is also necessary for other types of tourism. For example all the tourists need a tent, compass, etc.

To the equipment, we also include and clothes: it must comply with the terms of travel. For most common routes in the summer time, starting in May and ending August, the best clothes we think will suit yungshturma. He is strong enough, not Mark and looks decent. The latter circumstance is not in any case do not lose sight of that his scruffy appearance not point to disturbing thoughts of local residents. The tourist should be dressed simply but neatly, and it fully meets yungshturm – provided, of course, necessary for him leaving. Dress this inexpensive and for most young people is the normal clothing. When buying a new yungshturmovki should check is firmly sewn buttons, good or sweep off the loop, not too long sleeves, not a wide belt and so on, and all the flaws corrected.

For areas where the nights are cold, and in the mountains and northern yungshturmovki one is not enough. We have to take care of the additional garments. This role can be successfully run: jacket, woolen sweatshirt, jacket, or who are able to look deep into their pockets, especially made for travel jacket. The main thing in these clothes – again – still its strength and lightness, as the day when the heat jacket seems unusually heavy and completely forget that night, he was warming you. Leather jackets for pedestrian – tourists will not do. They are heavy, bulky, do not let the air to the body, and therefore promote sweating. Soaked for a long time to dry. Very comfortable and warm sweatshirt. It is better to keep warm when it charged into the pants. But when it is possible to make a special jacket, we can advise this style, which is shown in figure number 1. Outside, there are four pockets, buttoned flaps, and two internal side, with the same valves. Strongly to speak out against the coat. It is inconvenient, it can not be well wrapped up for the night, while walking, it prevents, weighs much more than a jacket and a blanket, put together, and it's hard to – ever laid. It is better instead to take a light blanket coat.

Fig. 1. Jacket

Yungshturmovka then sweatshirt or jacket and a light blanket – that's what is needed for most routes of moderate difficulty.

Who goes to the Caucasus, where he can get for a relatively small price, RR 10 – 15, a good cloak. Burke, safe to say, versatile piece of equipment. She replaces the blanket, raincoat, tent, to some extent, a relatively easy and very warm. It needs only to select for growth of tourists, not too short, about 10 centimeters – 15 below mid-calf. In such an easy to wrap the cloak. If anyone has the opportunity to get his cloak, then take a blanket, sweater or jacket, there is no need.

For those who can not tolerate the cold, you need to take more and wool sweater. It should be fairly easy and warm.

Some prefer to instead sweaters waistcoat with sleeves and the back of a warm cloth or warm shirt, others take quilted greyki. Made on a good camel wool, they are very warm. Sweater vest and greyka for regular secondary routes, if woolen blanket or burqa, in most cases totally unnecessary. These garments are taken for a long journey on the mountains, where a traveler may have to spend the night in the snow. For example, if someone targeted a route to "Shelter 11 -" (on the slopes of Mount Elbrus), then it needs a sweater. We also need the cloak or blanket. Similarly, for large crossover like the pass routes Dykhne – Aush or pass Tsanner (Dykhne – Aush and Tsanner – hard ice passes in the Caucasus, in the area of the glacier Bezengi). There may have to spend the night in the snow.

Once we take yungshturmovku, then this is already determined and the choice of trousers. They must, however, be wide enough at the knees and a step and not with straps and with laces. The laces are convenient because when wading through streams and rivers can tie up pants above the knees. In places the most friction, namely the knees and seat, good hem lining of the same material for strength. I have waist pocket for hours. The remaining pockets if they are straight, well-button up, not to lose the provisions of things there. In general, the smaller cast junk in his pants pockets, as there, no matter what the zipper, it easily disappears.

Since the feet are less sensitive to the cold, then on additional clothing for them, however. However, there should be the terms of the route, and the destinations of the snowy mountain passes, over / great northern route, where the nights are cold, you need to take a spare warm underwear or panties. It does not stop to note that a chilly part of the leg – is above the knee. Inadvisable to wear braces: they press the shoulders and quickly tear. Better now, which is passed through the 3 – 4 loops sewn to the waistband. Good times of soft thick leather, with two rings (for attaching to them various subjects), the rings should fall slightly behind each thigh.

Feet to the knees worn leggings or winding. Winding skintight calf leg, and it is important for the pedestrian. In order to properly and securely wrap the foot coils requires some practice. Otherwise you'll have to stop about every half hour to fix tangled coil. It is, in – first, burdensome, and in – the second is not always possible), and in certain cases even dangerous: for the flowers of the winding can catch foot, stumble, fall, and if it happened on a steep slope, then – for such a "trifle "You can even commit suicide. You can wear leggings instead of winding. Gaiters should be long enough so that they can be wrapped for the night above the knee to save heat. Leggings tie behind the knee strap buckle or rubber band with a buckle, but do not overtighten, or swollen legs.

When you have to hike through the snow, the snow will not clog in the shoe, the top is where it converges with leggings, wrapped a small strip of canvas or woolen fabric, which prevents the penetration of snow boots. When the coils are strips unnecessary, since the windings can wrap a shoe.

The headpiece is irrelevant. Caucasian comfortable wide-brimmed hats: they are cheap, lightweight, waterproof and well protect your face and neck from the sun. Caucasian good hat can buy the ruble and a half. But to avoid being blown off by the wind, it is necessary to keep the hat on a string or rubber band. Considerably higher set on the head small hat worn by Swan (Swan – the people who live in Svaneti (in the Caucasus)).

Underwear is better to take jersey. Good to bring along as melkokletchatuyu grid. In the heat can be removed shirt and go in the net. The grid can also play a secondary role to a considerable saving of heat: worn at night under yungshturmovku, it warms no worse than an extra shirt.

Feet shod in socks or leg wrappings. Last need to be good at wrapping up, or wrinkled, and you can rub her feet. The same situation also leads roughly darned sock. If anyone knows how to deal with foot bindings properly, they are by far the best socks and much more economical. Sweaty socks to change entirely, and can be shifted to other puttee, fresh end to the fingers, and the result is the same. Furthermore footcloth softer and this is very important. Generally foot in the shoe should be soft boots on. It is particularly well achieved with wool socks. To wool socks do not have to be replaced often, doing so first on the bare foot wear for vbiraniya sweat thin knit sock and it is wool. Then I usually just knit a sock.

Let us say in passing that one of the main tasks of the pedestrian – a tourist foot care – for their "means of transport". Sore feet, worn out, broken – it lost the route. The best of travel thwarted – for the sick leg. Foot care is primarily to maintain cleanliness. After each day's march should wash your feet with cold or lukewarm water, and then how to rub it with a towel and rub Born – salicylic ointment. Legs are prone to severe sweating, recommended salicylic sprinkle powder, consisting of 3 parts of salicylic acid, 10 parts of starch powder and 87 parts of talc. Average also are a few drops of tannin or a few crystals of alum, which is added to water when washing the feet. If, due to improper shoes or for some – or other reasons, all legs – still erased, sore spots should be coated with zinc ointment to put a linen cloth and tie a bandage. English minor wounding covered with tape. If we form a bubble, you need to pierce it with a needle, pre-neutralized in the fire, then smear Vaseline gauze and tie a bandage. Corns must be destroyed before the trip. Bad smell of sweaty feet and most unpleasant tourist and his companions, especially if you have to sleep at will, and in a tent. Odor destroyed the regular washing the feet formalin solution.

Now, if any of the listed subjects add handkerchiefs and towels, then the usual clothing duffel is complete. Good to have a few rough towel. But if it is for domestic purposes not, do not spend money on purpose: you can wipe dry with a towel and simple.

To set about what to bring with you from the clothing can be divided into two kinds of routes: 1) lines going in warm areas, without the cold nights, 2) in the temperate regions, with cold nights. Accordingly, the division (of course very approximate and conditional) have two lists of items:

1: Yungshturmovka. 2 pairs of underwear. 4 pairs of socks or three pairs footcloths. 1 towel. Panties. Net. Three handkerchiefs. Thin blanket. Caucasian hat or cap.

2: Yungshturmovka. 2 pairs of underwear. Hoody, jacket, coat or jacket. 4 pairs of socks or three pairs footcloths. 1 towel. Panties. Net. Three handkerchiefs. Blanket or burka. Caucasian hat or cap.

Fig. 2. The valley of the Caucasus

With this equipment you can go on all the flatland of central and southern parts of the USSR, in the valleys of the Caucasus, Altai, the Urals, and so, of course except for some special equipment, such as mosquito nets, and other things which will be discussed further.

For those tourists who go to the mountains with the intention to hike through the mountain passes, and the more snow, the equipment is not enough. It listed in the second column of subjects will need to add (depending on the pass and the mountain range in which it is located) has some items. Often at high altitude (3500 m and above) in inclement weather in summer rises snowstorm or be very cold nights when the temperature drops a few degrees below zero. Therefore, for the saddle and all mountain routes if they are above 3000 meters, must add the following things: 1) mandatory burqa, if not warm wool blankets, 2) woolen knitted cap, 3) woolen mittens and 4) woolen socks or stockings.

The fact that in the beginning it was said about the clothes, you can repeat the whole and in relation to shoe: it should match the route.

But whatever the route, there are requirements that must certainly meet footwear tourist – pedestrian.

1. It's okay to come on foot, never push or rub. After a long day's journey leg should only feel natural muscle fatigue, as in any physical exertion. What else pain, feeling of uneasiness, and even more worn out places, bubbles, etc., show that the shoes did not get along with his foot. So shoes should be well before going raznosheny. This is especially necessary to keep in mind when buying new shoes. Try and walk around the room a few minutes, then remove and put on only when went on a campaign – is unreasonable. Results will in the first few kilometers. New shoes definitely need good twine. For this we need to make several trips, until the leg is not used to the shoes (boots are not very suitable for tourists. Leg they do not have sufficient stability and quickly rubbed).

Fig. 3. Touring boots

Shoes should not be tight, but it should not be too loose, or foot in a shoe will fidget, so polished. The rise of shoes to sit well, tight, and in the fingers – free. Length should not be in short supply over the thumb and two centimeters long. Otherwise, for example, when going downhill, the thumb will be resting the toe, and this leads to rapid fatigue and causes pain.

Height of shoes are best to the top of the ankle. Hooks quickly break down, especially when walking on the rocks, so it is best to carry out the laces in the holes enclosed in the pistons.

2. Shoes should be of waterproof thick leather. The best for this purpose is juft. It is clear that the shoes, made of loose or thin skin, not suitable for the tourist. The foot should be protected from moisture as well as damage from the outside – hit a rock, when you jump on a rough spot, etc.

If the shoe is not made of Russian leather, and there is no assurance that it is waterproof, it is necessary, waterproofing, process the following composition shoes. On the floor – a liter of gasoline, heated in hot water, put 50 g of melted Vaseline, and 30 g of paraffin wax, add a bit of tannin, this composition is stirred with a wooden stick and pour it boots both outside and inside or smeared brush. After such a lubrication boots dried in a warm room. This processing of the skin with the dissolved gas in it with petroleum jelly and paraffin penetrates the skin and evaporates it leaves paraffin and petrolatum. Such treatment must necessarily be repeated before every great journey. For normal daily lubrication is used up that you can prepare yourself and the following recipe: take 10 g of paraffin wax and rosin cow fat and 20 g of petroleum jelly, and of oil and thoroughly mix it all together. Who does not want to mess with the kitchen itself, can get a good cream at the store hunting accessories. The same ointment should occasionally lubricate and Russia leather boots.

Generally, it should be said that the right care for the shoes is the first condition for their durability. Therefore, after each day's march to, removing shoes, take them out of the insole, free of dirt and dust, and if they are wet – put to dry in the fresh air. Not recommended to dry shoes near the fire – can crack the skin. When shoes are not quite dry out, they salve. Smeared shoes still wet because wet skin absorbs fat more than dry.

Thick grease should not be, do not lubricate very often. Frequent lubrication is achieved precisely the opposite: the skin becomes sluggish. Ointment should not spread and rubbed into the skin, as it were to drive it inside.

3. Shoes should be low wide heel and double soles. Reed tightly sewn to the sides, toes should be flat and convex and high enough to the big toe felt free to boot. Particular attention should be paid to carefully fit the lining to boot. It should not be inside the folds, protruding nails, irregularities, etc. The laces are desirable from thin leather straps.

risunok12.jpg (6091 bytes)

Fig. 4 Location of the nails in the sole of the shoe Fig. 5

All of this – the basic requirements to be met by shoe tourist. Then sometimes you have to make some additions. So to explore the mountain valleys desirable upholster the sole and heel of the shoe nails with semicircular heads. These nails should not be long, so as not to penetrate the outsole. Stuff should be in approximately the order as indicated in Figure 4. At the edge of the heel and toe nails can score close to each other, at intervals equal to the width of the nail head and the rest in order checkers, four rows at a distance of about 2 cm nail from the nail. Boots, lined with nails, last longer and increase the stability of the foot on the rocks, snow and ice.

For serious climbing, to climb the snowy peaks and in general for big mountain routes is another interior shoe nails (Fig. b). For this purpose, take the so-called "kostylkovye" nails and gently outlining an awl at the base course for nail obliquely pierce it through the edge of the sole, so that came out through the end of the rand could then bend. Located at the edges of the nails as these: on the heel and the sole of the sock in completely, and further away in pairs one pair from the other at regular intervals to a width of about the index finger. Mid sole upholstered then nails with semicircular caps as indicated above.

Laced shoes should not be tight, especially in the hills. When descending a better all – did little to tighten to prevent slipping foot to the toe and finger are not limited by it. Well put insoles. They leg feels softer and warmer. This is particularly important when you walk in the snow.

In case of minor repairs necessary to take an awl, wax-end, frame, and a few extra nails.

Who year after year make thinks tourist travel, that is absolutely necessary to buy or order such special shoes, they will cost RUR 16 – 18, and, with proper care will last for several years, while the usual city shoes wear out, especially in the mountains, for one route. However, if finances do not allow to buy special shoes, you have everything – the same ordinary shoes fit properly, namely to line second obsoyuzku outsole and put on the front.

At the time of rest, unless one is accustomed to be barefoot, good to have gym shoes or shoes Caucasian type.

We pointed out the most appropriate clothing and footwear. I would recommend and describe a lot of other things but not buy or produce at low cost, we can not. In the development of tourist equipment first steps taken by the Company proletarian tourism, which in his store (Moscow, Petrovka, 5, shop, "The Tourist") and our own workshop to conduct experiments for the production of cheap and good quality travel clothing, footwear and equipment. However, this is only the experience, and soon summer (1929) rely on the satisfaction of all interested tourists equipment is not necessary.

Next we give a list of other items of equipment needed as each tourist individually and the group as a whole. The list of large, covering a couple of dozens of objects, and it clearly speaks in favor of not a single trip, as a group. Take, for example, things like the tent. Easiest for 1 person. weighs 2 kg and for 5 people. – Only 6 – 7 kg. The difference in pressure on a man almost – 1 kg. Then the ax for the group 5 people. You can take one, at most two. Kettle and pot for 5 people. does not weigh up to five times more than one person, and only 1.5 – 2 times. Lantern for 5 people. – One or two, the same can be said about the first-aid kit, a compass and other items. In general, if a group of 5 people. to have each of 10 kg, a tourist – a loner forced to carry 15 – 20 lbs.

1. Items public based on 4 – 5 people.

Tent. Rope. 2 hatchet. Saw, blade. 2 lamps, one of which is electric. 2 compasses. Card and a bag for her. First aid kit. Binoculars. Bowler. Kettle. Camera. Pedometer. Altimeter. Set for repairing shoes. Shoe brush and ointment. Candles and matches. Primus.

 2. Personal effects.

 Ruzak. Cats. Ice pick. Alpenstock. Flask. Glasses. Knife, fork, spoon. Mug. Mosquito net. Mittens. Side bag. Device for washing. Device for sewing. Device for shaving. Whistle. Notebook. Pencil. Sleeping bag.

Tent. The need to have a tent for a group of independent, amateur tourists – say no. Tent – is the base, the home of the tourist, no bugs, and other delights. Sleep in a tent – much healthier than in the room. Secondly, the presence of tents unleashes a group of tourists in the sense of finding a place to sleep and the development of the route, for a tent can be put anywhere. The only disadvantage of the tent is that it is relatively heavy. Made of the so-called "tent" of matter, it for 5 people. will weigh 6 – 7 kg. Unfortunately the lighter matter, we can not produce, and sale of suitable tents either. Available (such as "Swedish") is very bulky, heavy and too expensive. A quantity of tarpaulins and tents made of rubberized material put into rental Company proletarian tourism especially for amateur groups of workers travel cells. But the tents all – still not enough. We'll have to sew a tent itself. In essence – this is a small trick.

Fig. 6. Camp

Tent for 5 people. required 14 meters of canvas tent or matter, if it is 1 m wide. Narrower taken correspondingly greater. Tent dimensions are 2 m wide, 2 m 20 cm in length and 1 meter 65 cm in height. In a tent, you can lie down and up and down, as a group, find convenient.

 Lie along easier in the sense that you can go out, get over the neighbors. Across – has the advantage that when it rains the roof sags and laterally gives skates lying at some inconvenience.

 Cut out the tent so: cut two pieces of matter, length of 440 cm and stitch them to length. Thus obtained banner 200 x 440 cm is the roof of the tent. Then take a few sheets of newsprint, glue them and draw them to a triangle whose base is equal to 220, and the height of 165 cm This triangle is the template for the pattern sidewalls tent, which should make two. They are cut from the matter this way: take two pieces of length at 205 cm, folded together lengthwise, place them on the said template so that the top and bottom strips were 20 cm and cut the fabric on the sides "in the" triangle, leaving the bottom intact. Figure 7 shows the pattern shading.

Fig. 7. Pattern front and rear tent

Under the pattern pieces of cloth sewn along the "e" is the same as for the pattern remained unhatched, apply one to the other side "b" and sew only the top at 25 – 30 cm from the first triangle will be back wall tent, and the second not linked to the end, the front – the front. At the front of the triangle to the cut stitched rim, like a shirt collar – so that one fringe came to another. In one of them cut and overcast 5 – 6 loops, and on the other, with the inner side facing the tent, sew on buttons. After this banner 200 x 440 cm, which was mentioned above, put across, mark the center, tack her top triangles and then sew them by double seam, leaving the bottom 20 cm turns nedoshitymi way around the tent freedomstion strip of 20 cm: her installation tent lay stones, earth, sand, etc., from the bottom to stop the access of cold air to the ash-pit, which is very important for keeping the heat on a cold night. These bands can bend and into the tent: then strengthen them things that are in the tent, earth or small stones.

 All edges of the tent from the bottom hem, and in addition to the height of 20 cm from the edge of the tent on the corners and in the middle of her bottom is double sewn stripes, 8h15 cm size, which prometyvayut two holes at a distance of 6 – 7 cm from one another. In these holes is passed to secure the tent rope from below (Figure 8, page 34).

 Above, on the ridge, from the inside thick rope sewn into the index finger and reinforced leather in the corners or the same matter that makes up the tent.

 Considering that the tent will cost 14 m to 1 p. 40 K per meter (tent fabric), have 19 p. 60 K, the rope will cost 40 cents, thread, leather and buttons on one rub. – A total of 21 rubles. Thus one person tent will cost 4 – 5 rubles. In this way is the so-called "whole" tent.

 How to make the tent waterproof. Tent to the following conditions: to be waterproof, lightweight, strong and fast to install. We have already said that the tent easy matter to get at us while it is difficult, as for water resistance, it usually sells for tent fabric treated with a substance that makes the fabric waterproof. However, the factory processing method is not completely reliable and lasts long. Here we present a couple of recipes for making compounds that make fabrics waterproof. The simplest recipe – a mixture of linseed oil and hot wax or beeswax. To produce the mixture of linseed oil, take 1 kg, 200 g of wax (or wax) and heated on the fire until the wax has dissolved. This mixture is constantly fueling it, but not boiling, wide brush coat with a tent, especially at the seams, and then give it to the open air to dry well.

 With this method, there is a drawback – a tent is much heavier and greasy to the touch. The second method is more laborious, but more reliable, is as follows: 1/2 liters of water stir 500 g of milk casein, add 12 g of hydrated lime powder and then add the hot solution of neutral soap (25 g in 3 liters of water). All this is well mixed, and the mixture was placed in a tent, so it is well soaked. Then take out, allow it to dry, then put in a second 2% – solution of acetic acid – acid alumina (aluminum oxide 2 parts per 100 parts of water). After that, the tent is lowered into nearly boiling water, removed, dried, and waterproof tent is ready. This method is very reliable, but a bit troublesome.

 A good result is achieved even with such treatment; is prepared 40 ° / o – yellow soap solution, is used for washing clothes. In this solution put a tent out there give it good to get wet, then take out and shift to 20 ° / o – solution of copper sulfate. After removing from the solution, dried, not depressing.

 Where and how to pitch a tent. Set your tent is. Buttoned-down entrance tent, stretch it on the ground behind a rope threaded through the holes at the ends, and stick them with pegs or stones. Then the sides close to them are driven by two stakes meters high, and for them to tie up the tent roof at a height of 165 cm from the ground. The rope does not slip on the pegs down, they hack. The remaining end of the rope is stretched roof then to the sides. Then, on the strip, as mentioned above, place the ground, rocks, etc., or folded them inside the tent.

 If conditions allow, the stakes can be used instead of two closely standing tree. Generally need to look around, if not immediately at hand is a suitable material for tents. The easiest way for the need to apply the so-called "alpenstock" of which we shall speak later.

 Tent set is not in vain, not on the first available spot. You must select sheltered from the wind. If it is open, and substantial protection from the wind not, put up a tent to the entrance side of the wind (with his back to the wind).

 Never put up a tent in a hollow, if not forced to do special reasons, as well as on a steep slope or at the bottom of the ravine / where in the case of rain water flows. For tents preferred easy slope or flat ground. When the tent is set for a long time, or expected rain, then dig the groove around the tent with a bias from the tent and about 1/2 m from it. In the mountains, often have to pitch a tent on the rocks. In these cases, use some good – some great stone as one of the supports to strengthen the roof, and other, smaller stones, stacked pyramid can hold a stick to the second point of support.

Fig. 8. Camping

Important in setting the tent – it's good to pull the rope roof, side wall is stronger easier, even on the hard stone ground, placing of stones on a 20 – centimeter strip.

 If the tent is set on the grass, put it well before the sun, but if placed after the call – need to remove sod, otherwise it will be wet. The tent tourist must be clean, as in a room. Before the rain very taut rope while strengthening tents will not be, because when wet rope sits down and can pull prikolyshi and even break the tent. No need as the rain touched the wall inside the tent, as it is leaking. Wet tent roll, and give it to dry first. It is in – first, help protect the tent from the debate in – second-dried tent carry easier.

Ris.9.a – tent, b – flyazh – ka, in – photo – apparatus, g – d ice ax – a rope, e – side bag, female – Cats

If you fail once tent dry, then put off the matter under the carpet and do not need to do at the first opportunity.

 Should carry a tent outside, above rukzaka where it fits and roll wear a seat belt (Fig. 9).

 The tent can not be afraid to spend the night at a few degrees below zero. With the ascent of Elbrus we spent two nights at an altitude of 4,200 m in the snow to the rocks "Shelter 11 -" at the temperature, 1 – (round – 8 ° snowstorm (in mid August) – but in the tent was not cold. Dressed we were so: ordinary underwear, sweater, jacket (or hoody), woolen trousers, knitted socks on his feet, over their wool. Additionally there were cloaks.

 In addition to whole-tents, which discussed above, there is the so-called modular tents, consisting of several panels of size 160 x 200 cm and two triangles. These tents easier to wear, because they know in part but difficult to sew and more difficult to establish.

 Rope. The next item in the order of the list is a rope. It takes just under difficult routes through snow and ice passes, as well as when climbing a very steep cliffs and is for mutual escort (to retain companion failed in crevasses, slipped on a steep slope, and so on). Under usual routes through the valleys and passes light rope to bring not necessary, but it can nevertheless be helpful to the transition through the rugged mountain streams and generally required for other purposes. The rope must be at least 20 meters from a good twisted hemp, not thinner than 1 cm in diameter, but no thicker than 1.3 cm to give the flexibility of the rope, and that it does not absorb the moisture, and thus to prevent it from rotting, rope smeared with Vaseline, but it is better to use this method: in one liter of warm gasoline (certainly not heated in the fire, and in a container with hot water) is placed 100 g of Vaseline and then heated when it dissolve in gasoline, pour this mixture of coiled rope or better yet, dip it in the mixture and left there for a few minutes. Then removed and allowed to dry. Gasoline evaporates and dissolved petroleum jelly, getting along with the gasoline, pervades the rope up to the "inside", which is very important, because when wet rope in a long time is crude, but from this and start rotting fiber, which reduces the resistance of the rope. During the trip, as well as before his rope to carefully examine: whether there were any injuries, and correct.

Fig. 10. Hatchet and Case

Hatchet. Need a small hatchet hunting sample. Handle it should be long enough to get a good swing. Good to have a leather case for the blade, adjusted so that the hatchet could be worn at the waist. Is such a hatchet about 2 rubles. or more, depending on the finish. Case can be made most of the skin will also be less of canvas or simply from double folded canvas, but with a leather pad to the tip. Destinations of woodland ax must choose pouvesistey bit like a small carpenter (Fig. 10).

 Saw. Saw mountain tourists no need to take with you while traveling in the forest area (Karelia, Northern Territory) it will have the essential services, especially if we bear in mind where to stay – something for a longer period of time and get the camp. To do this, take the saw, so-called "hacksaw", of medium size, about 30 cm long, the width of the handle 10 inches, well refined and diluted. Saw need to invest in a case made of leather or canvas, leather lining in the teeth. Such a saw for a few minutes, you can cut down a tree 20 inches in diameter.

Fig. 12. Ground flashlight.

Tourists who are going to live for a while camping in one spot, you still paddle. The most suitable – also called Gardening, Red Army.

Fig. 11. Automatic feeders candles

Lantern. Online there is no folding camping lantern (12). There is also a mechanical feeder and candles (11). Is a tube with a diameter equal to the size of Shesterikova candles. Inside the tube is a coil spring, the top tube is closed cap with a hole in the middle. While pushing the spring in a tube inserted piece candle and close the cap. Candle in such a device is not in combustion swells and thus every two – three more economical. Such devices for candles were when – then a cab lights. According to the accompanying drawings to make such a follower of tin is not difficult, more difficult it is with a flashlight, but it can handle a good Zhestyanikov. Instead of glass well insert a thin mica. For want of it to take 1 – 2 replacement glass.

 Requires light does not always happen, but it is precisely in those moments when it is not. On a level road and you can walk in darkness, but in the forest or in the mountains, the rocks, it is not easy. For. those lights need during nights when you need to go down to get water from a steep or little-known bank. It is also not so easy. There are other cases. So thanks to the absence of light (electric at that time was safely in the pocket of one of the forgetful satellites), we in the valley. Baksan had to spend the night near the bridge, which is in the dark, we could not find, as it was referred to the steps 10 – 15 away from the well-trodden road. Lantern easily be bailed out of this unpleasant situation.

 Map and compass. Geographical map we call list, which with conventional icons – lines, dots, circles, etc. – shows how – or area located on it with mountains, forests, lakes, rivers, and so on, so that the top sheet accounted for the side facing north. At the bottom so it will be the south, to the right – the east, to the left – west. The area depicted on the map of course in a reduced form, or, as they say, to scale. Water on the map indicate the blue paint, plain – green mountains – brown, snow-capped peaks – blue – blue. Places lying at the same height above sea level, are connected by a line called hypsometric.

Fig. 13. Compass

To compare this map with the location or what is the same, find the item on the map, we must first determine where the north. For this is most frequently used device called a compass. The main thing in the compass – it's hands, magnetized end is (darker or how – something otherwise indicated) points north. Now, if the top card turn to where the magnetized needle end, we thus map gets superimposed on the landscape.

 Put the right map, understand the icons to be able to, how to find the relevant part of the map area – and the means to read a map.

 Card is required and the development of the route and on the road. Cards we made good and fairly accurate, except for mountainous regions. Enough for boat routes map scale 10 miles to 1 centimeter, for pedestrian – larger – 4 km in 1 centimeter. But even better to get 2 – or even 1 kilometer – kilometer, as it more and it is easier to apply the route, and do all sorts of marks that indicate malfunctioning card from the actual views of the area.

 Card should be protected from moisture and dirt, otherwise it becomes a worthless piece of paper. To save the map are good special bags, which can be put together, and other items, such as a notebook, a guide, pens, etc. The bag has a pocket with tsellyuloidovoy insert bordered to the squares, in order to be able to immediately determine approximately the distance because each square corresponds to a certain percentage of the space on the map (Fig. 14). In this pocket and inserted card, folded so that part of the route, the coming of the current day, fell from the top.

Fig. 14. Bag for Cards

Compass – one of the most important items of equipment tourist. To not only be a toy, a compass should be small, with the arrow on agate and have a device to hold hands in a fixed position so that it is not loose when the compass is not needed. It is better to spend the extra 50 kopecks. Than taking the cheaper imprecise tool. Good compass can be purchased for 2 – 21/ 2 rubles. To choose a compass always with thick glass – stronger. Wear a compass in the side pocket yungshturmovki on a string. Tourists without a compass – a blind man, and who is not able to handle it – the illiterate …

 Learn to use a map and compass – easy. However, in this case to exercise. So before you go on a long journey every tourist has repeatedly come up with a map and compass in the field, the forest, the river – near the place where he lives.

 No tourist should go on a journey without a compass and map, even if it comes with a guide or companion, familiar with the terrain. Know how to deal with these items is particularly important in the mountains, in the vast forests of the Northern Territory, for it may happen that a friend, who took the lead, for whatever reasons, would retire from the system, and then the one who does not know how to use a compass and map, may be in a helpless position.

 First aid kit. Tourists are not allowed to be ill. Observe the rules of hygiene, and the main thing is not to drink cold water temper. If wet – wipe and change clothes and socks. Do not have a lot of raw fruits, not to overeat fatty lamb, etc. If all observe, first aid kit can travel with a tourist a few years in full safety. But all that is human is alien even to the tourist, besides watermelons cheap and tasty.

 First aid kit should include a small set of medical supplies for first aid. This minimum is increased if the route is in a place where there is no close medical stations. Travel kits for different prices available for sale in stores Gosmedtorgproma and in store, "Tourist". In the medicine cabinet first be dressings: absorbent cotton, sterilized, hemostatic cotton and bandages, iodine, xeroform padding wounds and collodion to fill, aspirin, when used in high temperature, tablets phenacetin or aspirin or aspirin compound, phenacetin and caffeine on headache, and quinine in malarial areas, with gastric pains opium tincture, castor oil (or Epsom salt); cough – doverovy powders, with palpitations – peppermint or valerian drops, a cold throat – manganese peroxide rinse. Foot care – powder, which was mentioned above. The same tourists who have to make big transitions in the snow or glaciers, it is recommended to take to protect a person from the effects of ultraviolet rays of the sun, causing the body to open places severe burns, ihtiollanolinovuyu ointment. Finally, in the medicine cabinet should be scissors and safety pins.

 First aid kit should be kept in order and protected against damage, which you need to fit kit to order a tin box.

 Binoculars. For most routes binoculars are not required, except maybe high when using binoculars in the exploration and study points the way to the summit.

 In areas where the possibility of hunting, binoculars can look out for prey and animals. Good binoculars Zeiss prismatic system, but they are expensive. Sold on the occasion of the market with it you have to buy carefully, because if anyone knows the system, can buy stuff. To repeat, the binoculars are not necessary, but it still is one piece of gear tourist.

Fig. 15. Bowler

Pot and kettle. Bowler – it's poetry and prose tourist. Well, after a day's where – somewhere on the banks of the stream or on the edge of the forest to build a fire and watch as the pot is prepared in a delicious dinner (Fig. 16). And a tourist dinner always delicious, as the best cook – it's appetite, and appetite tourists galore. Closely huddled around a fire a group of friends, and the conversation flows or heard rumbling laugh. This is – poetry. A prose – pot should always be clean inside and out. Being a cook honorable and heavy duty!

 Considered the best bowlers in aluminum pots, low, with a wide bottom. They heat up faster and easier to clean. Well if you have a pot with a bow, but you can take and ordinary pot and hang it over a fire on a chain, or arrange ochazhok stone or earth. The size is determined by the bowler appetite, but I think that for l, 5 l per person will suffice. The bowler must be stored in specially tailored for him to tie the bag and strap tightly to rukzaku, if you can not put inside.

Fig. 16. Campfire

Together with the bowler does not prevent capture and pans, also made of aluminum.

 Kettle. Tin – fragile, better galvanized iron, or even better – instead of taking a second kettle pot (or pot), which is placed in the first – it's more convenient to carry. Can be ordered, if anyone wants tea, is embedded into the pot. In this case, the spout to save space is quite "snub."

Fig. 17. Camera

Photo. Camera – one of the essential items of tourist equipment. He is not cheap and increases the load, but it will give not only a lot of good memories, but also the best illustration of the diary tourist. In addition, images can be produced slides and stories of tourists on their travels always fun when accompanied by pictures. Best opportunity for the size 9 x 12 (Fig. 17). He gives the prints are quite suitable and without magnification. The plates of this size can be wherever there is a shop of photographic accessories. But for big mountain routes, during which accounted for the smallest weight of each item, it is recommended to take a smaller unit, up to 41/ 2 x 6. The final image, obtained with the help of this system, are too small and need to increase. But his weight with all accessories in the 3 – 4 times less than the amount of 9×12. Who tried to climb to the highest peaks, they will understand what it means to take the place of 4 kg only 1 kg, and reduced and the amount of cargo. These small devices are more expensive than ordinary large, but the difference is justified cheap plates and other accessories. So, who is on the route is not difficult, for the size of the device 9×12 good, for others as decidedly more comfortable and better size 4 1/2 x 6.

Fig. 18. Altimeter

Weight of accessories to the unit 9×12 could be significantly reduced if, instead of plates can be sufficient and cheap to get the film.

 Pedometer. The device looks like your watch. Put in a pocket or attached tightly under his knees. At each step of shaking hands pedometer moves and indicates the number of steps passed.

 Altimeter. A device for measuring the height of the site above sea level. The main part of this tool is a spiral metal tube from which the air is pumped out. One end of the tube reinforced fixed and the other to the arrow, which indicates the height above sea level (Fig. 18).

Fig. 19. Folding primus

Set for repairing shoes. In – the first secure an awl or even two, one larger, more thinner. Even better shiloderzhatel, and to him 3 – 4 spare sewing different sizes. Then ready to use wax-end, some thick, blunt-nosed needle, a small coil of thick rough thread, a piece of wax, a few extra nails with semicircular caps, some 1/2 – inch nails, thin frame 2 meters and a few scraps of leather. This set can be placed in a separate tin box, if necessary, to have everything on hand. Get a pair of spare laces, cleaning brush and lubrication boots and ointment. (Kit for repairing shoes can be attributed to personal equipment.)

Fig. 19. Flasks for fuel

Primus and accessories for him. For areas where it is difficult to get a combustible material, such as large glacier crossings, in treeless areas, it is recommended to bring a kerosene stove. Normal "home" kind primus inconvenient that takes up space. Not interfere so turn it into a convertible, which is sufficient to alter the burner, making it unscrewed and soldered to replace Detachable legs (they are then inserted into a special ears). Such kind of primus conveniently fit in a box and takes two times less space.

 You must have a spare gun and skin to repair the pump.

 For combustible good tin flask, flat, roughly like the next picture. Do not forget prochischalki and matches that to protect from moisture well preserved in tins, airtight boxes. For the same purpose can be submerged head matches in melted paraffin, which matches before use can be easily removed with a fingernail.

Rukzak. One of the major tourist accoutrements is rukzak (duffel bag) (Fig. 20). If we imagine that all the things that has to a tourist, but a lot of them should be placed in the bag, as well as attached to it from the outside, it will be clear that the correct device rukzaka need to pay serious attention.

 Requirements that apply to rukzaku, are as follows: it should be sewn of waterproof material, to be quite spacious and light and have some means for attaching to the various items of equipment. Therefore rukzak usually sewn of thick, but not thick canvas, and in the absence of such – of tent material. In the latter case, the matter would have to give it a waterproof varnish further treated with paraffin. To protect the same things from contact with missed this composition of matter, the inside lining of the need to file the calico or canvas. The side facing the back, soak mixture is not necessary for this part of the bag can get wet it is rare, and that in very heavy rain, the party rukzaka suffers more from sweating back, than the rain.

Fig. 20. Rukzak

To rukzak was roomy, its dimensions must be at least 55 cm in width and length. In a small rukzak not put a lot of things, such rukzaki fit only for local tourism, and even then not always. Densely filled with things that are uncomfortable sitting on the back between the shoulders and pressed. Things of this rukzaka get hard, and they are all knotted.

 When packing things in rukzake need to pay attention to each subject knew his place occupied by it as possible. Neatly folded sweater will take at least two times less space than a crumpled. Those objects which by their nature quarrelsome, such tooth powder, soap, tallow, etc., it is best to avoid trouble, put in some waterproof bags or tins. Very good for this purpose boxes, made of aluminum, they weigh a mere trifle, a great convenience. In these boxes such as bread does not get stale for several days. In addition to these convenient to pack small, and easily breakable objects. These boxes can be made of thin sheet metal. If you take them a few pieces, then produce so that one input to another. The size of such boxes; 29h22h11 cm 27h20h9 cm 20h16h7sm etc. There is also a round box (Fig. 21).

 To achieve the most uniform distribution rukzaka things inside and outside of a few pockets sewn. Furthermore bulky items, such as tents, pot, kettle, etc., are attached on the outside, if only within rukzaka not enough space and he is busy with other things.

Fig. 21. Boxes for food supplies

Wear rukzak behind with a wide soft leather straps. He has no such straps are made of canvas or canvas, folded several times. In these cases, the matter must stitch or bottom straps in areas that fall on the shoulders, hem the straps.

 Rukzak adjacent the back and blocking the access of air to it, causes severe sweating. Eliminated this device known machine. Machines come in a variety of systems. The best is the Norwegian rukzak that has lightweight, durable and extremely cleverly made machine with a belt, and in addition and false bottom, thus achieving greater spaciousness. As for tourism, as well as from a hygienic point of view, the Norwegian rukzak far exceeds all others. Rukzak by this machine is not fitted to the back, and so create a free circulation of air, eliminating sweating back. The lower part of the machine, covering and resting on the sacrum, it takes some of the load, and thus facilitates the shoulders and breathing. Time only serves to strengthen rukzaka to it, with the possible fall did not spread through the head. The machine is made of a thin steel tube, steel used tires, beyond which stretched strip of leather or canvas. At the top of the machine rests on a leather pouch attached to rukzaku belts. Along the edges of the lower end of fasteners are

Fig. 22. Norwegian rukzak

Good rukzakov have in mass production yet. The first batch of this year for best foreign models released STORE of proletarian tourism sizes 55h55, 60h60 and 60h65 on the leather straps.

Fig. 23. Patterns rukzaka a – flag, b – a rear – front view, g – strapping

But rukzak possible and easy to make yourself. To do this, take not thick thick tarp or tent cloth. If matter of width 1 m, the average value for rukzaka 60×60 need 126 See the accompanying illustration shows the sequence all the stages that passes rukzak the manufacture of it. For individual parts – pockets, valves, straps must first carve patterns.

 So a piece of cloth in a 126 cm length folded across, measure from one side of 60 cm and cut off. The resulting bag – 60h63 cm – stitched on the sides and on the top edge of the hem of 2 – 3 cm of the edge of the cut out at 7 – 8 inches apart and overcast, but if you can, then sealed pistons. In thus obtained is passed then the rope hole, which rukzak and contracts like a pouch. Now, on top of one side of the valve is sewn rukzaka as shown on the size and on the other side of the pocket with closing valves on the clasp. Below, from the corners, stitched buckles or buckle sewn to only one of them, and the other coming from the right side of the ring, for which then fastens carabiner strap. Top straps are attached to the ring, sewn into the skin just at the base of the valve. All edges of the valve of course should be podrubleny. You can also sheathe their skin, but it carefully. For attachment to rukzaku outside the tent, burqa or blankets, sides stitched leather jumpers, and they pass through the appropriate length straps. Some items can be tied up and the bottom rukzaka but firmly, so they do not hang out, otherwise they interfere with walking.

 Inside rukzaka also do not prevent a few pockets. For this, even before rukzak sew, place the back of it and a piece of cloth sewn in the middle and bottom. You can also sew two small pockets for small items, such as first aid kits, shaving device, handkerchiefs, etc. Then a piece of cloth "which is sewn, also has a form as shown in Figure 24.

Fig. 24. Pattern interior pockets

Packing things rukzak – it is not as simple as it seems at first sight, and requires some experience. Has a skilled tourist things so that it was possible, without delving into the depths of rukzaka quickly removed when you need. Usually placed at the bottom of those things that will be needed infrequently or once a day, say, for lunch or dinner, for example rice, folding Primus, etc. The party rukzaka facing the back, put inside his underwear and other soft subjects. This can protect your back from any angle too annoying – any boxes or knife handles. Things that may be necessary at the same time in separate bags stacked together, such as tea and sugar.

 How to wear rukzak. Proper strengthening rukzaka back a long way. Can not be too highly rukzak pull up, then burden rests solely on his shoulders. Length of the straps need to be addressed so that rukzak its lower part rests on the sacrum. Then the weight is distributed evenly between the shoulders and rump. Do the experience has shown that this type of tourist wearing rukzaka fatigue is much less. It has long been noticed by porters, they cushion falls exactly on the rump. In this respect, good machines, as mentioned above. If anyone knows how to work in metal, then this machine can do and most. Homemade rukzak cost ruble 4 (without the machine).

 During major transitions in sparsely populated areas, when you have to take a big load, belts, however broad they may be, all – still natruzhdayut shoulders. In these cases, a good underlay wide straps soft insole made of several layers of felt, covered with what – something the matter.

Fig. 25. Right and wrong wearing rukzaka

Some guidelines recommend straps down at the corners rukzaka skip in the ring and then fasten the buckle on his stomach to rukzak not talk. Perhaps in this case, and the goal is achieved, but constrained by the so-called "abs" is very important for proper breathing. Besides beating on the back can rukzak, which dangles just one box of canning, and it can be fun and when walking fast.

 "Cats." This device is made of iron with steel studs, tie shoes to the bottom in order to be able to walk confidently and with greater safety on the hard firn (Firn – packed granular snow), glacier ice slopes, rocks covered with ice, very steep slopes, covered with grass, as well as breaking weathered rock. That alone is an enumeration shows that cats need only tourist – walkable to the mountains, and then not always. Cats are the inseparable companion mountain tourists, who often have to deal with the firn and ice mountains. Cats are much easier to climb the steep icy slopes. While the icy slope of 25 ° for a tourist in the shoes, not the armed cats, irresistible, in cats it can surely go up and down the slopes of 50 ° or more. For example, in the ascent to the summit of Mount Kazbek good cat owner does not need a single step.

Fig. 26. Shestizubnye cats

The accompanying drawings of cats give them a better idea of any description. Production of cats have not yet been established, as there was no demand, and the first experiments in this regard made by the Company proletarian tourism. However, the size of your feet can make intelligent smith cats easily. The main attention should be paid to the fact that the spikes were drawn or welded, of good tensile steel, and of sufficient length. Do not forget that when using spikes dulled and must fret file. It certainly shortens them, so that after a while will have to tighten.

Fig. 27. Cats of Ekenshteyna

Cats come in a range of 6, 8, and 10 – toothed. Of them are particularly good system Ekenshteyna most commonly used is 6 – gear – tye. In addition, they are easier to make homemade way. There are still 4 – gears, which are placed under the middle of the shoe, the heel, but they are not reliable.

 Cats must be well secured to boot. Loosely sitting on his leg, too big or cats are short, instead of helping, the danger to tourists. Template for cats done so. On paper, a pencil lead on the contours of the boot and indicate the places where the cat should have to spikes. Front separated from the nose no further than 2 – 3 cm, rear 1.5 – 2 cm from the edge, the average same pair of thorns – just at the foot of the fold. The spikes are made of 4 – sided, four centimeters long and 1.5 wide at the base.

Fig. 28. Template for making cats

Cats are attached to the shoes belts or braid of hemp, which is passed through the welded ring. Hemp webbing belt is better, because the belt when wet in the snow, and it should be weaker pull, it takes a lot of time, and depending on the location in which you are going, and not always possible. However, there is this special belts, well saturated fat. It should be noted that the tape does not weaken when wet, like a belt, but rather contracted. This should be kept in mind and not too hard to tighten hemp webbing, as drawn in by foot rather tired and easier to otmorazhivaniyu. Cats are attached to the shoes as follows: put the boot firmly between stops, which are rings, and the heel rests on the heel, threading webbing in the ring number 1 back, lead her to raise the legs to the other guy in the ring number 2 thrust, then to the front № 3 on the opposite side, and burn through the webbing to the front toe, Man number four, it obliquely to the average across the number 5, and then to the other side to the pair number 6 and finally strengthen buckle A. Figure 29 shows the numbers of the ring, and arrow move tapes with the strengthening of cats to the shoes. Well, purely made cat weighs 1 kg of steam.

Fig. 29. Diagram attached to the shoes cats

Walking on cats is a bit different from the usual distance. The legs are not set up with the heel and flat. This is done so that the spikes at the same time all the cats stick into the surface on which the tourist walks, and thus is somewhat strong footholds. This is especially important to remember when walking on icy slopes. Stepping, leg should be lifted slightly higher than do ordinary. Kant's cat, that is, try to go on a snowy or icy slope as it is done in the innocent cat shoe, leaning into the slope just a welt, and in this case, only one side of the stud cat – do not, because the foot can easily be broken with slope. Tourist, wearing a cat for the first time, the above method of walking seem right may not be quite easy, but it is also necessary to it usually will soon get used.

Fig. 30. Case for cats

As far as cats are welcome when walking on steep icy slopes and glaciers, so they are not desirable as a subject, which all – still must have its place in rukzake. Laid awkwardly, they can produce great devastation: so one died in the prime of my companion at the bank with raspberry syrup, stained with his blood sweater, a guide and a shirt. You can certainly strengthen and cats outside, then they reinforce the valve top rukzaka special straps, if that place is not busy tent. Otherwise – as indicated by the letter "g" in Figure 9. If you intend to put the cat inside rukzaka, then take the appropriate amount of wooden plugs, put them on all the spikes and thus neutralize them. You can also do a sort of canvas box for cats, and at the bottom of the box is placed a board of plywood or sheet metal (Fig. 30).

Fig. 31. Ice ax

Ice pick. Second inseparable companion tourist – vysokogornika is ice pick. When traveling through the valleys and mountain passes is not difficult, you can do without it, but ice pass already requires use of an ice ax. In appearance resembles an ice ax pick, who split the snow and ice on roadways. Ice ax – is a versatile tool alpine tourist, which is used when climbing peaks covered with snow, with rock climbing, walking on steep slopes covered with grass, glaciers and ice axes, etc. are cut stage, rely on him, stab in the snow and it strengthens the rope, etc. One of the most ardent fans of ice ax even say that with a certain skill it can be used as a toothpick …

Fig. 32. Template for making ice ax

Ice ax should be made of the best material. Metal parts of the non-friable tensile steel, the handle of beech or oak wood without knots, oval-shaped, as in this case, an ice ax is more convenient and is firmly in their hands. Metal parts ice pick (ice ax head) are called – and tooth blade. When choosing an ice ax should look to the balance point accounted for about one-third the length of the handle from the head of an ice ax. The length of an ice ax should be dependent on the growth of the tourist, but generally do not exceed 120 cm in vogue size 105 – 110 cm Weight ice ax – 1 – 1.5 kg. Online ice axes not have means to order it by the accompanying drawings (Figure 32).

 Ice ax are usually in your hand like an ordinary stick. Glacier or while rock climbing ice ax attached to the wrist by a loop of hemp webbing (Fig. 33). Approximately 30 cm from the tip of an ice ax to the handle is placed a metal ring that serves to tape attached to the hand, while cutting levels not come off with an ice pick.

Fig. 33. Ice ax loop for attachment to the arm

To protect it from moisture and to give strength ice ax handle is impregnated with hot linseed oil. Appearing on the metal parts of the rust removed with kerosene. Sharp parts ice axes as needed to tinker with a file. Beyond the use of an ice ax to the head, to protect against damage to both the ice ax and surrounding animate and inanimate objects, worn leather case (Figure 34). Since mass production of ice axes are not, ordered in a single order, it will cost 20 rubles. This is the most expensive piece of equipment tourist – pedestrian (only in the mountains) (To learn why and how to use a rope and ice ax cat – described in detail in the following books: The first book of the tourist, "ed." Young Guard ", part 1 p. 65 k, and, Mountaineering "V. Semenov, ed., The Young Guard").

Fig. 34. Case for ice ax heads

Alpenstock. Stick-long growth or approximately 20 cm above the human growth. Good sticks of dogwood, but they are heavy. In this respect, enjoys greater love bamboo – it is light and strong enough. The lower end of alpenstocks worn clutch of iron or copper, insert a piece of wood and a driven or screwed into a steel pin so as to stay on the outside end of the 6 – 7 cm long. Shorter pins are inconvenient, as on steep slopes they slide. Alpenstock tourist – traffic can be of great service when crossing the river, with its help you can jump over a ditch or stream, it is used as a balance when you click on a log, which often replace the bridge, when descending a steep slope alpenstock used as a brake, to adapt to install tents and finally protection dogs that special hospitality is different.

Fig. 35. Flask

Flask. Best jar of aluminum, they are durable, unbreakable and light (Fig. 35). Average also enamelled flask Red Army sample, but they are relatively heavy. Glass, or even braided cane rods, short-lived, especially in the mountains, and heavy. The water in flasks kept longer cold, and warmed tea – warm, if covered flask felt or cloth bag. Capacity not less flask 3/ 4 L, but not more than 1 1/2 liters – cork should be well-fitting and attached to the neck cord, chain, etc. It is also good if the flask fastened shotgun to wear it at the waist or outside to priveshivaniya rukzaku. Pure aluminum water bottles in sand or fine gravel. To do this, poured into a flask of sand, pour a little water and shake thoroughly. After this treatment, the interior of the flask shines like polished. Acids destroy aluminum. So one should not squeeze the aluminum bottle of lemon juice or citric acid crystals put to sdabrivaniya water or tea. Bottle out of use do not cover, or it starts making a musty, unpleasant odor.

 Safety glasses. Blue, gray or smoky glasses needed mainly mountain tourists or tourist far north to protect the eyes from the action of the rays in snowy areas (Figure 36). Gray or smoky glasses preferable as blue glass all – still miss some of the rays, the eyes irritating way. Sunglasses should protect your eyes not only in front but also on the sides, with the deaf or melkosetchatoy rim. Instead of glass it is desirable to insert the same color tsellyuloidovye plate, as they are more durable and do not break when struck. In extreme cases the broken glass can be replaced with a piece of paper or cardboard, which is cut by a knife narrow horizontal slit. The eyes are not protected by goggles, with a strong action of sunlight on snow fields can develop is coming inflammation of the optic nerve, which is expressed in the cutting pain, and sometimes in a temporary loss of vision. For large glacial transitions is very dangerous. With the defeat of the optic nerve is necessary first of all to protect the eyes from the light and make cold compresses. At night, we recommend a compress of tea leaves.

Fig. 36. Glasses

Knife, spoon, cup. On sale are folding knives where awl, screwdriver, nail file, and so on, in a word – a workshop. All this is certainly convenient, but fragile. Knife blade is usually small and can be used in the best case for cutting … sausage and cucumber. Screwdriver will pass very quickly. The same happens with an awl. Such knives are good for small walks in the countryside, but not for the big tourist travel. Here, you need to take that – something more solid, stronger and better every tool specifically for their intended use.

 You can take a large folding knife, or, as is often done, Finnish or hunting small size. The handle should not be hard to knife hanging at the waist, do not drop and did not get out of its sheath. Some Finnish knives have this little device – it's the strap covering the handle and fastened the button.

 Spoon and fork can take what is, however, a wooden spoon is not hygienic, since poorly cleaned. Who would think a little bit, he can make himself a folding device (Fig. 37).

Fig. 37. Folding device

Mug. Lightweight, durable and convenient aluminum mug, but it burns, and the tea you can drink it just warm. Enameled harder, but eliminated the lack of aluminum circles. Large size mugs uncomfortable, can be considered the most appropriate in the fifth l., About 1 cup.

 Screens. Grid as a preservative against mosquitoes and gnats in the north and wooded areas is out of gas. Mesh with stripes, which vdevaetsya frame is attached to the headgear so that it does not touch the face. The same frame strip is passed through the middle of the grid, and in such a way that it comes just at the shoulders.

 The rest of the grid is delayed cord under the collar. To protect your hands from the mosquitoes wear thick gloves cut in his hand. Protect against mosquitoes and also scented ointment. To do this, take vaseline and 200 g of naphthalene finely crushed '50 All this is good rubbing.

 Mittens. When routes that include transitions across glaciers or snow passes, we must take to protect your hands from the cold woolen mittens.

 Side bag. If there is a bag for the card, it can be limited. Who does not have this, and it is up to a pocket, it is easy to make the most so-called "side" bag of canvas, and to put things that are desirable when walking close at hand: a notebook, pencil, etc.

 The device consists of washing soap, toothbrush, tooth powder (or paste) and crest. Comb can be placed in the side pocket. Other accessories for convenience is good to have in a single convolution, which make a pouch. Soap buy aluminum bar of soap, tooth powder to buy in a tin box. Tube of toothpaste does not stop putting in that – something solid, like a round wooden pencil case, as the material tube is pretty weak. In addition to soap to have a piece – and another for washing.

 As for shaving device, it certainly should take with you, as a tourist during the trip should be no worse form than usual. However, if you only sent in the snowy mountains, the device that can successfully be left at home, as hair guard the skin from sun burn, which at high altitudes unmercifully.

 Sewing kit. How you looked before leaving a tightly sewn buttons, one of them on the way, and just at the right place always come off. Similarly, no one can guarantee the complete safety of trousers if you have to walk through the fallen trees in the forest or rock climbing. Some in this respect, just unlucky. I know of a tourist, who during his route most of the time allotted for rest, spent in repairing the trousers. Tailor kit should include: black and white thread, a few needles of various sizes, pieces of fabric, color coordinated to the clothes and underwear, spare buttons for the various pieces of clothing, scissors can also borrow from the kit. The same pair of scissors and cut the nails that grow on the go incredibly fast. All of these things does not stop to put in a box or bag.

 The whistle is required for roll call, the signals in the forest in the fog in the mountains, at night in the field, etc.

 You can call up the conditioned signals with a whistle, not tearing ligaments throat. The sound of the whistle has to be sharp and loud.

Fig. 38. Pattern sleeping bag

Sleeping bag. Riding comfort for the night can be considered as a sleeping bag. It is easy to make and most of the canvas, which should be well impregnated waterproof structure. Picture for patterns attached (Fig. 38).

 The bottom of the bag, which falls to the ground, lay on the well 3/ 4 top oilskin or another layer of canvas, and then on a piece of felt. For sleeping at high altitudes and in cold regions the entire interior of the bag is sheathed with what – something warm, like a woolen blanket.

 Depending on the material and the weight of the bag is. On average, it weighs 3 pounds.

 A great list of items of equipment and their weight involuntarily forced tourists to take seriously the preparation and selection of the route the things needed in the way. After all, what you take with you, we must bear, and forces a person has in a measure, so before you take even a lightweight object, to think. One accidental friends afflicted us all sorts of sweet and plenty of handy things during our train journey to where you started walking path. There was a special pack bottle of cologne – he's so nice refreshing face after shaving, what – a particularly sophisticated pillow dinner service, consisting of plates, forks, knives and napkins – all in a canvas case, there was a lot of other very useful things. Then our paths diverged a bit, we went to the top of a mountain, our companion – a difficult, but very long pass. Then we met again, and our occasional companion at the first joint breakfast is perfectly did a knife, no fork and at night put his (all – still blurry vezhetalem) did not occur to the improved pillow and on rukzak, placing pre-handkerchief as usually do all mortal tourists. Where as the Virgin and it is their cute and comfortable things – we did not ask …

Fig. 39. In the mountains of the Caucasus

Settlement, which must be followed in determining the goods shall be based on the weight of the tourist. Experiments have shown that the best ratio is 1:5, that is, if a tourist weighs 60 kg, the weight that it is free to take on the shoulder, will be equal to 12 kg. For women, the ratio is somewhat different – there is need to take one: 6. With such a load can easily walk tens of kilometers. However, of all that was said above about rukzake, it follows that these pressures can be impossible if Luggages stacked ugly and if rukzak worn properly. Also plays an important role and training, and one of the best exercises are the Sunday travel, local tourism, with a gradual increase in the distance and load duffel bag.

 If possible, all things must be put in rukzak. When a group of several people as possible, since a more uniform distribution of items between players. Only very bulky items left outside, such as a tent, pot, kettle, etc., but they need to be strengthened so as not to hang out, not rattled. For mountain tourists have all the things in rukzake especially important. The tourists must meet all of the time and place.

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