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(French for horizontal, from the Greek. Horizons, b. Deaths horizontos, letters. — Bounding) curves for Geography. map connecting points of terrain with the same height above sea level and give an idea of the relief of the earth's surface. G. is a section of the projection area uronennymi surfaces given height. When you create topographic cards intersecting horizontal planes carried at regular intervals in height, called vertical interval, to the paradise strictly conditional map scale (the larger the scale, the lower the height of the section), and the resulting steep section line projected beams on a common plane, which is formed of closed D . (Fig. 1). Height, defined on the territory. former. USSR from Wed m level of the Baltic is called. absolute height difference of two points, rel. height or excess.


 Fig. 1. The principle of obtaining contours and design them in a common plane of the map.

Rice. 2. Image of the terrain with contour lines, elevations and symbols(Contour interval 10 m).


                  Gaps between two neighboring city called. burial, due to the steepness of the slope: the steeper the slope, the smaller the gap on map. The steepness of the slope angle is usually expressed in degrees.'' Abs. height of the water table in the river or lake, marked on the waterfront, called. water's edge. A number of forms of relief, can not be expressed in the scale of the map G. (rock outcrops, ravines, cliffs, etc.), as well as the arts. landforms (mounds, ditches, mounds, etc.) represent conditional signs.

                  Using, on the map, you can define the abs. and assigns. altitude, steep slopes to measure, design slopes with a slope of no more than a predetermined value, to build Route profiles and others, the collection allows visualize terrain, that it is important to guide the movement, When the card is checked periodically with the terrain, identify the benchmarks and clarify the route (Fig. 2).

                  Lit. Mapping the topography of the basics, 1-2, M., FF Aleshin VM., Serebrenikov
AM, Tourist topography, m, 1985.

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