Hygiene when working with solvents in industry

The solvents used in industry for the transfer of non-volatile or nonvolatile film-forming substances in the solution and the dilution of the solution to the desired working consistency (diluents).
Solvents used in the following industries: paint, footwear and leather goods (consisting of adhesives, paints, etc.), instrument and mechanical engineering (for parts cleaning equipment and machinery from oil), in organic synthesis and in the medical industry, laboratory practice (at chromatography), the fleet (as fuel, etc.), etc.
For hygienic assessment of the importance of the solvents have the following properties: all solvents are toxic, according to the degree of harm they can be divided into four groups [according to their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in the working area of industrial premises]: a) the least toxic MPC-300 mg/m3 and more — ethyl alcohol (see), etc., and b) more toxic-DRC 200-100 mg/m3 — acetone (see), butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate (see Ethers), etc., and c) highly — MPC 50-20 mg/m3 — benzene (see), xylene (see), toluene (see), methyl alcohol (see), etc. d) osobotoksichnye — MPC 10 mg/m3 or less — dichloroethane, disulfide (see), trichlorethylene, etc.
Solvents characterized by high volatility and significant speed evaporation. The stronger volatility and below the boiling point, the greater and more quickly solvents can saturate the air service facilities. Volatility compared to determine how much the substance evaporates slower than ethyl ether volatility is taken as unity. On the basis of volatility solvents are divided into: a) volatile — volatility to 7 (acetone, benzene, gasoline), and b) sredneletuchie from 7 to 35 (xylene, chlorobenzene), c) tyazheloletuchie — over 35.
According to the boiling point of distinction:
a) boiling — t ° boiling below 100 ° (acetone, benzene, benzene), and b) srednekipyaschie — t ° boiling range 100-150 ° (acetate, xylene, toluene), and c) high-boiling — t ° boiling above 150 ° ( turpentine).
Solvents are usually highly flammable, sometimes explosively.
Solvents — mostly clear, colorless liquid pleasant odor. This is important, because the look and the smell is not alarming, do not push away the workers, but on the contrary, the latter used to these odors, may feel the need for inhaled them, which in turn can promote the access of solvent vapors into the body.
Some solvents, once in the body, act primarily narcotic, causing functional disorders of the nervous system (alcohol, ketones), others can cause organic CNS (trichlorethylene, methyl alcohol, carbon disulfide). The solvent effect on the hematopoietic function (benzene, toluene), some — in parenchymal organs, such as liver (chlorinated hydrocarbons). The solvent is irritating to the mucous membranes and skin.
The toxic effect of certain solvents described in the relevant articles of the medical encyclopedia.
The manufacturing processes of a variety of solvents — from the extraction bath before spraying with color.
Adverse conditions can occur in the preparation of solvents, spilled them, application and drying the dyed products, etc.
Preventive and sanitary measures: solvent exchange to other, less toxic, monitoring of compliance with GOST each batch of paint products, automation and the most complete mechanization of the solvents.
Jobs and areas of work with solvents must be equipped with local exhaust and general supply and exhaust (general dilution) mechanical ventilation. Workers employed as solvents, must necessarily pass preliminary and periodic medical examinations. Workers must be provided with protective clothing (see clothing) and personal protective equipment. All workers should be instructed on safety when applying for a job, and then at least once a year.
Reception and storage of food in work areas are not permitted.
The state of the air requires systematic monitoring.

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