Deep powder snow — the main obstacle when driving in the forest.
In heavy snowfall during the thaw with a depth of 15 cm motion Trail is difficult, even if successful, well-chosen ski waxes, avoid podlipa.
After a warm snow in the cold snow gets frozen, it becomes hard and tough, but falls under the skis, since cold loose weight lightly clasped his large flakes. This snow is unpleasant for the skier, but can be successfully used method tropleniya "pereshagivaniem." It lies in the fact that the unloaded ski extends as far forward on the snow surface, and only after that the skier weight is transferred to it. The other leg, in turn, unloaded and just "walking through the snow."
In this ski thaw step is not necessary: the snow will podlipat, and, as it is difficult to have, loading skis, with the force pressing on them to slide against the resistance of wet heavy snow.
When after a long thaw without snow comes cold weather, muddy snow freezes strong crust. This frosty crust can withstand a skier with a backpack, and then in the forest road is open to travelers. Spring frost crust formed by the daily temperature fluctuations and daily insolation. Each forest region in the spring is the time most convenient for ski trips. In late spring it is sometimes better to move at night and early in the morning while still limp frosty crust, and sleep during the day — the sun.
On a frosty snow, no wind light dry snow falls down. Layer up to 15 cm of fresh snow this lying on the frosty ice crust, do not obstruct the movement of the group. Technique ski course is the same as on the track, and one person can go for a long time ahead, not being replaced.
With a depth of trails from 20 to 30 cm, usually ski trail "pereshagivaniem." Tropyaschy spends far more energy going back and must be replaced often. Ski track after he gets rough, "torn", and the second coming is spending a lot of energy in its alignment.
Strong skier should not run longer than any other ski runs, if only because to them that will start tropleniyu, tired from a long alignment trails. Usually during tracking "pereshagivaniem" change sets tropyaschih team leader, giving the command to each of them.
With a depth of more than 30 cm trails Tropez "pereshagivaniem" can not (have to lift the leg too high, the step is shortened.) Have to "intertill" snow, you will need to seek to maximize and extend the step as possible to slide on the ski.
With a depth of 50 cm Trail The trail is very difficult. Speeds may be less than 1 km / h. Each tropyaschy is usually not more than a certain number of steps, set a team leader, and replaced without a team. On such heavy snow front working hard and quickly replaced.
Ski track depth of 50 cm is relatively rare: in the narrow snow-covered valleys of rivers and streams, on the border of the forest in the valleys. Such places should be possible to bypass.
With a heavy load to penetrate deep ski trail is not rational. If the site is a short (2-3 km), leave the ski track cargo and break light. Despite the extension of the way three times, this technique can greatly save time. There is another way tropleniya — "hook": each, starting to tropleniyu, removes the backpack, and then returned to him.
If you have ski runs deep Tropez full day or several days, is divided into two groups. One group, the main cargo passing comrades from another group, coming from behind on the final track, breaks ski trail, carrying much lighter backpacks. Even with the speed of light rucksacks tropleniya rarely exceeds 2 km / h. Go so slow skiing with a heavy backpack is difficult, so the loading has to make frequent halts. Tropyaschie never stop. After some time, the participants switch roles.
After stopping for the night of the group is developing a bivouac, and the others continue without backpacks troplenie sometimes for 3-4 hours.
Despite all this, often have to settle for a day's only 10 miles or less.
When a trail in the forest area follow the river valleys. In most cases it is convenient to go straight across the ice rivers. Way along small rivers very tortuous, but even sharp turns of the river to cut the thick forest irrationally. The exception of the upper reaches of small rivers, covered with a very thick layer of snow, and rivers teeming with rubble. Rubble, sometimes meeting every 50-100 meters, making the switch on the river entirely impossible.
When driving on a dense forest in the daytime rate may, be less than 1 km / h, and in the dark at all negligible. In the middle of winter, you need to go to the night back in the morning twilight, to be used for movement every minute of daylight. Have to stop for the night before dark, as finding a dead tree by the light of a lantern in the dense forest is difficult.
The right direction in the forest on a cloudy day is determined solely by the compass. Usually with a compass works one person walking at the end of the group and is not involved in troplenii trails. He sees in front of a group and taking
the line movement direction on tropyaschego, gives corrections of the compass, commanding: "Left", "Right". Teams should try to apply at the time of the next tropyaschy finishes bypass obstacles (the path of the skier in the woods much curvier than a pedestrian path).
Maintaining the compass direction have to move on watershed areas. If the map of the lake
and swamps, preferably cross watershed for them. In bogs in the middle of winter are rare unfrozen areas (they are recognized by the smell of decay, the rising steam, yellow color of snow). More common in the water under the snow on the ice of the great lakes, acting under the pressure of the ice. It is not dangerous, but the movement is hampered by podmerzaniya skis. Polynyas open and weak ice to be feared at the confluence of the rivers in the Lake
When driving on the lake to watch the map for such places and take them with great care.
Crossing the divide, and saw marked on the map orientation, you need to select a direction of movement, the error to be unambiguous. In Fig. 36 shows a way out in the upper river, which flows along the line of motion. In this case, obviously a mistake to the left, passing the watershed, not to guess where the river, and "walk"
in exploration, trail ski trail, and confidence to move the entire group to the right (in the woods in winter exploration takes many times more
time than in the summer).
After several days of hike in the woods (away from settlements and roads), coming into populated areas, you can find toboggan track. For tens of kilometers, he sometimes stretches from the villages. This winter away on mowing the prepared
the summer hay. In the forest, in the bush hay clinging to the branches, and you can see which way it was carried — in the side and the village.
The forest area is much more difficult than in the mountains, to find the right path. If in doubt, it is better to spend the night and do not
leisurely ponder the situation. The greater the distance covered at random, so it is difficult to determine.
In the forest zone often move along the rivers. Snow usually are smaller and denser (especially on large rivers) than in the woods and on the track. The orientation of the river is greatly simplified.
Depending on the flow rate, the amount of water and energy cold river can be intercepted, the ice in only a few places (and frozen only along the coast) may be frozen, but with plenty of polynyas around the river.
On wide rivers polynya usually remain only under high banks on the outside of bends, to midstream. Large rivers in the winter — a convenient way for skiers, but the line of motion to them to choose to bypass the rapids, cornering, this way, by the way, and shorter (Fig. 37). Dangerous to go on the ice and narrow canyons where on the map thresholds.
Walking along the narrow river, teeming with wormwood, has continuously move from one bank to another on ice
bridges. In the tourism literature, there are recommendations to go with an open bracket and carry a backpack on one shoulder strap (it was easier to get out dips). But the path to the ski runs undone bindings not while wearing a heavy backpack on one shoulder and still work with ski poles is unlikely. Such recommendations may be, and can be used with occasional crossing a dangerous place, but in this case it is worth the trouble to investigate the dangerous bridge skier without a backpack, insured by a rope (but buttoned skiing to, failing, not lose them).
If the current in the river and the water is such that the dips in the water can pull the ice, snow bridges to cross only in conjunction with the observance of the intervals between all the participants, sufficient to maintain
on the rope failed.
If the motion to have a bunch of tropes ski runs deep, then it should be done by one or two bundles of two people each. Cargo tropyaschih are other members who can walk for three or four to one pitch, but always in combination, as it happens that the ice bridge collapses and a rear.
Moving along the river, constantly locate the group on the map, the characteristic bend in the river, along the tributaries. Going down the river in search of tributaries have to look back, because the inflows. usually fall at a sharp angle, and at the sight of the river merged with wooded banks.
If not sufficiently detailed maps, ocular estimation has to be carried to the river, then to identify it
with the existing map-scheme.
Survey should be conducted on the move so as not to delay the normal motion of the group. Use of special, even the simplest tools (alidade, protractor, scale bar, the meter) is almost impossible, in the cold and the wind and keep the pencil compass catch and release have not removing gloves.
Images are made by one person. He is the last and during tracking trails the average depth is easy to keep up with the group. Instruments (tablet, compass, pencil) hung one on each cord around his neck.
Tablet — a sheet of cardboard 250X150 mm, bound for the middle. At the end of the day (at the bivouac) can redraw the outline drawn with a tablet notebook, tablet and clean eraser. Can be mounted on a tablet every day a new piece of paper, but paper soak in the snow and tear and protect the tablet does not: it must be open
and close at hand.
Pencil — a simple, very soft.
Compass — a rope with a loop on the lever catch. Over sleeve jackets worn watches.
The edge of the tablet is oriented along the main direction of the river (presumably it is taken or sketch maps), and in the course of the group, such as the south-west.
It is desirable to identify and write on the tablet in a table range that group (in this situation)
passes for 1, 2, 3 minutes, etc. … to 10 minutes.
The next subject for sighting down the line of motion is chosen to go and show tropyaschim ski. Also on the move addressed the issue of distance traveled from the previous point distance (on the clock, on memory, on the eyes, looking back, etc.), and on the go, it is applied to the plate.
Determined by the compass direction to the south-west, marked on the plate, and only then the tenant should stop and draw a line this ski pole in the snow. To face the subject of sight and deploy one of the ski right at him. Then, holding the plate in front of chest and looking down at the same time on the tablet, the line drawn in the snow, "south-west" and deployed along the line of sight ski orient the tablet and to the point of standing line parallel aimed ski. Now, turning in the right direction (not trampling the line of "Southwest"), should be directed to specific points on the ski shores and apply them in the same way on the tablet at the same time remembering the contours of the coast (the distance is determined by eye, to delay them on the tablet without a ruler, looking at a linear scale, straight lines parallel to draw by hand aimed ski). Before we go any further on the tablet over the station point should write counting minutes on the clock. (Hours rationally count distance of 300 meters, but every hour to mark the outline of the time). The contours of the coast on the rough outlines applied to points on the fly.
The narrower the river, the more difficult to shoot. Particularly difficult shoot of forest roads, but without a good map is the only reliable way of orientation.
When traveling in the taiga zone, you need to carefully examine the map hydrography district. Need clear rivers belonging to the different basins of the main direction of the valleys, their character. Ridiculous cases chipping ice in the river to determine the direction of flow should not be.
In areas of northern mountains typically 100-200 m above the bottom of the valley (in the upper reaches of rivers) on the slopes of the forest ends, and loose snow layer is replaced by a dense wind.
Often easier to not move to the bottom of the valley, and cut corners on the slopes of the ridges. In Fig. 38 shows a section of the river, where, in spite of the steep climbs and descents, move on slopes much better than to follow the bottom of the valley.
If you need to turn into a tributary of the river, it is convenient to start long before the influx of reciprocation of the slope, especially if you go down the river.