The pathogenesis of alcohol on the body

Ethyl alcohol has an effect mainly on the central nervous system, so it is called a "nerve poison." First disrupted the activities of the cerebral cortex — is a weakening of inhibitory processes in the cortex, which in turn leads to the release of subcortical centers beyond it, is caused clinic alcoholic excitement. Inhibition of subcortical centers by increasing concentrations of alcohol often leads to coma. With further the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system of organic changes occur: loss of cells and spinal medulla. Due to the violation of complex integrative processes in this system, discoordination of redox processes in the brain cells.
One of the pathological factors of alcohol is its ability to penetrate into the cell, which determines its prevalence throughout the body. As a result of the impact of alcohol on the vasomotor center of the medulla oblongata is an expansion of peripheral blood vessels, in particular the skin, and blood flow, perceived as a sensation of heat, but large doses of alcohol cause the development of paralysis of the center.
Acceptance of small but regular amounts of alcohol leads to increased heat production and heat loss. As the concentration of alcohol increases the negative temperature balance. Body temperature drops parallel degree of intoxication. By acting on the central nervous system changes the secretion of digestive glands, increases the secretion of digestive juice, which, however, are poor enzymes.
Local impact the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the development of dystrophic and erosion processes in the parenchyma and mucous membranes. It should be noted that 20% of alcohol is absorbed in the stomach, 80% — in the gut. Under the influence of alcohol increase gastric motility and decreased reflex response digestive tract. In the course of his systematic use resorption increases due to the delay in the gut. When taking alcohol after eating (especially potatoes, meat, fat) reduced the rate of absorption and is lost (the decay, the relationship with food proteins) to 33-39% alcohol. Maximum concentration in the blood was approximately 45-90 minutes after taking a drink. In the study of patterns of alcohol intake produced interesting results: resorption alcohol Repeated dose is much higher, as the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, as it were prepared to suction and digestive reflex response to local irritation is reduced. Patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, it is significantly higher than in healthy subjects. In maloprivychnyh and unusual habits of people absorption slower than in those who abuse alcohol. In contrast to the older people and children, young and middle age have a tolerance to it.
The main importance in removing alcohol from the body are the kidneys and lungs, which are excreted from 2 to 10% alcohol unchanged. The remaining 90-98% are endogenous oxidation.
According to many authors, the ratio of the concentrations of alcohol in the blood and brain tissue above unity since its separation from the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid is slower compared to other tissues of the body and blood. Already in the absence of alcohol in the blood for a long time is found in the brain tissue.
Under the influence of alcohol impaired vitamin metabolism, especially B vitamins (B2, B1, B15) and C thereby reducing the synthesis of amino acids.

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