Primitive fishing rod.
A simple fishing gear — is, of course, a fishing rod. You can make it from any available material. It all depends on the ingenuity of the victims.
If we stick to the fishing terminology, the rod is designed to cast a hook into the water with a nozzle, cuttings and fish playing. The length of the "ideal" rod should be: when fishing from the shore in areas with a swift current — 3.5 — 4.5 m, and when fishing in shallow waters, covered with reeds, even more, when fishing from the raft and similar boats — 2 ,5-3, 5 m at catching on bottom line without a float — 1.5 — 2 m, for sheer blesneniya — 50 -80 cm for winter fishing — 30-50 sm.Prosteyshee rod is made of a thin, straight trunk hazel , ash, cherry, maple or other tree species. For winter fishing more suited juniper branches — they are flexible, durable and, most importantly, are not sensitive to frost. Found at the bottom of the barrel trimmed and cleaned of twigs and branches. Bark, once again not blunt instrument, it is better not to shoot. On its presence or absence of quality rod is completely independent — just look. Thus received billet rods fishermen called the whip. The thickness of the whip to the weight of the fish, which is supposed to catch. This, in turn, depends on the size of the hook, which has distressed people. In any case, here it is better to be safe, as distressed fisherman can not afford to lose the hook and fishing line with a broken rod! Best before you begin fishing, check the strength of the rod, which load the tip weight, approximately equal to the weight of fish. For example, fill a sock with sand or other suitable "container", attached to a fishing line and lowered into the water to simulate sweeps and fish playing. Finally, in the absence of material for the manufacture of fishing rods you can fish, the fishermen said, "finger", that is, after casting a fishing line to pinch between your thumb and index finger to feel a bite just as good float. Or wear loose loop at the tip of the index finger. Most of all, this method of fishing is justified when fishing from boats on the bottom rod.
For the manufacture of fishing rods, designed to catch small and medium fish, commonly used fishing line diameter of 0.15 — 0.25 mm for the big fish — 0.3 — 0.8 mm. As a makeshift fishing line easier to use unwound, dissolved into separate strands rope. Thick fishing line, designed for big fish, can serve associated shoe laces. For the manufacture of thinner twine woven laces should be dissolved into individual strands that bind together to the desired thickness and cut into solid 3 — 4 thin strips, which are connected to each other. Similarly, in a separate thread blossom braided belt. Straps of leather and leatherette should be cut into thin strips of equal width. Manual do difficult, so it is best to use a makeshift "machine", conceived and made on the spot. For example, to limit the lateral displacement of the belt with hammered into a wooden plate or stump 4 — 6 knots pointed, stuck in a tree sharp-edged knife, slowly stretch the belt over. Another way to cause me some doubts, but still I give it. Single piece of soft leather, synthetic leather or animal skin stretched on a stump with a flat drunk and secured with nails driven into the perimeter or thin twigs. Cutting is a sharp knife in a spiral along the annual rings of a tree. The weakening of the skin secured additional nails. In theory this method should make it possible to get quite thin and, more importantly, equal to the thickness of the strip. But in practice, often a knife stuck in the woods or on the breaks and incision formed notch. Probably much easier to just cut the skin on flat ground or in a circle, getting one endless thread, or cutting off the edge of the strip, which then binds to a single thread. You can adjust the thickness of the strip, moving along the edge of a plate-pattern prevents slipping the knife sideways. Even better to draw a line cut. And in any case it is necessary to cut a very calm and very long, as the haste almost always leads to accidental cutting of the thread. May dissolve into individual threads and woven canvas straps used in backpacks, knapsacks, traveling bags, etc. An excellent fishing line can be a Nylon thread, extended from the joint tents, sleeping bags, and clothing. Individual threads can get, spreading a thick, durable fabric backpack or protective clothing .. When there are no other materials, can be used as a line of fine wires, the individual stems from uncoiled metal cable. Such unconventional line before catching desirable spread grass juice or grate the ground to loosen unusual for the fish odor. Fine line derived from plaited hair nadergano the tail and manes of horses and other hoofed animals. A fishing line fishermen used in ancient times. At the very least you can try to make a line from a few tens of woven together their own hair, glued for strength, for example, conifer resin. Fishing line, so it was more convenient to throw should be about 20 — 50 cm longer than the rod. Longer afford to throw the hook on, but it makes the process of casting and complicates sweeps and vyvazhivanii caught fish. The easiest way to fix the fishing line at this point, conceding it made at the end of a thin rod slit-like incision. And be certain that fishing line does not end at the end of the rod, and stretched to the butt, where it will be possible to hold hands. Otherwise you run the risk that when the turn of the rod gear with caught fish will go into the water.
Ideal Georgia received from a large, cut to half pellets, pulled out from the curb hunting cartridge. Or of lead cut from the car battery. In a simple fishing rod sinker is attached to a distance of 12 — 15 cm from the hook. Under the weight of its Biran so as to ensure the float upright, raised position above the surface. When attaching multiple consignments shall be placed first in the 10-12 cm from the hook, and all the other up the fishing line, after 3 — 4 cm from each other. In bottom fishing rods used heavier weights and fixed at the end of line or on a separate lead. Improvised sinker can serve any heavy object: nail, bolt, nut, metal pieces of clothing, footwear and equipment, finally, just a stone suitable shape. For bottom fishing rods, zakidushek, tyrants, and similar gear you can use any container (a small plastic bottle, drug bottle, a case of film, etc.), a tightly packed sand. At the very least the same sand can fill a sock or glove linked "knot" handkerchief. In ancient times, weights of various shapes and sizes made from clay, then burned in the fire. Due to the fact that the improvised weights may be sharp, they are desirable not bind directly to the line, so as not to damage it, and do not miss out on the hook, and after a short leash. When using such improvised weights knit them better away from the hook, not to scare the fish, their unusual appearance and smell.
Float suitable for any floating and easily processed material: foam, cork from a bottle or thermos, pen, tree bark, thick straw or dry reed, core barrels burdock. From a large water bird feathers can turn downright classic bobber. For this feather of a bird to clear the entire length of the fibers, gently bend the tip, insert the "clamp" roll up the line and bend thread. At the top of the pen float fishing line is attached by a rubber ring or round bandaged thread. If the volume of the float is not sufficient and it is a little above the water rises or sinks, you can make it a combo. For example, the fine feather and a dry twig to increase buoyancy wear ring carved out of tree bark. Well balanced with a sinker float must be of water not less than one-third of its length. But, basically, you can fish without a fishing rod and float and sinker. To do this, the end of a long rod attached fishing line to it a small hook-and-tee with live bait, which deepened to the required depth. Such gear is popularly called the "mahalka." Catch her usual perch and pike.
The main part of the rod — hook. Industry produced hooks of different forms: with a rounded a bend and straight or bent toward the tip, with a sharp bend and straight tip, with a round bend, extended forearm, doubles, tees, etc. By choosing hooks for emergency kits or just to hike, to be preferred forged with a round bend and direct sting. They are considered the most versatile and catchability. You also need to consider the quality of hooks, because it affects their durability and sharpness. The hooks are made of good steel, characterized in that the compression of the spring and releasing it take its original shape. Fakes are made of mild steel, and remain in a flexed position. They are best avoided. No hook (2.5 to 16) is the distance in millimeters from the tip to the fore. Considered to be the most running hooks Number 3 — 8. Abroad adopted a different numbering — from 1 to 17. Moreover, it is the opposite, that is, the smaller the hook, the higher the number. In an emergency, good hooks can be made of nails, metal wire. To do this, the end of the nail, wire should flatten slightly, hitting several times with a heavy object, and make the blade of an ax or a knife deep notch, slightly tilting the chips upward to form the barbs, preventing disruption of just any fish. Now it is sufficient to bend the nail and make a hook shaped ring or a spatula for mating line. Good hooks obtained from the wire ring from a bunch of keys which have broken into two parts, safety pins, springs from the rod-promoted pen. To facilitate the handling of solid steel used in the springs, rings, and similar products, you can try on the fire ignited. In addition, fish hooks can be made of the teeth broken off forks, pins, stealth, badges, brooches, hoop pocket knives, hooks and loops on clothing. Belt buckle of a belt or rucksack can turn just three large fishing hook. Two — from broken off, bent the arc and sharpened on one side buckle halves, one — of a metal tab. Some hats, lingerie as a framework used rolled steel wire, from which you can also make some hooks. Large hook may come out of the pocket knife. To do this, lift the blade to slip under a small stone and wrapped around the rope. In this position, the blade will stick out to the side, like a stinger hook. Of course, this size hook can be used only for catching very large fish and attached to a very strong fishing line. Finally, you can do without metal used as raw material wood, bone, fish and birds. Wooden hook is most easily done from the branch with the exhaust towards the knot at a sharp angle. At the top of the branch cut groove-groove for mating line. Sting bitch sharpened, cleaned and lightly roasted in the fire to gain strength. May be provided on the tip-notch barbs. Some forms of bone hooks, by the way, they are taken from books on survival, and of the reports of archaeological expeditions. These fish hooks mined our ancient ancestors. And, I think, successfully mined since their descendants are reading this book. Good hooks our ancient ancestors were made of sea shell. To do this, they are using a pointed stone drilled a hole in the center, and from the resulting workpiece receiving hook desired shape. From the structure of the branches, that is the main and 2 — 3 off from her small shoots, you may have a double or tee for catching big fish. Exactly the same tee obtained from three fish bones bound together. Of the same structure, but the thin branches may make "active" hook. If swallowed fish hooks sharpened tip sticks stuck in the throat tissues. Processes for greater efficiency can be slightly compressed and in a position to stick to the bait. When the fish swallow the bait, hooks, spines straightened up and stuck in the throat of fish. If possible, the choice of material can be produced combined hooks. For example, stick a sharp stick in the fish bone, and further strengthen its coil of fishing line or nylon thread. Or in the same way to fix random nail. More reliable flat wooden or bone hook. Made of strong branches vystrugivaetsya two, five-centimeter (depending on the size of the fish, which is supposed to catch) stick, which tapers at both ends. The center rod is cut shallow circular groove for fishing line. Bait is placed on the whole hook and fishing line. If the fish, attracted by the bait, swallowed a hook, he literally gets her throat deeply dug into the soft tissue. In the hook, made from the bones of fish and birds in the center can punch a small hole for the anchor line. Of course, with makeshift wooden and bone fish hooks breaks down more often than metal, but still fish with them possible. At catching small fish homemade wooden and bone hooks are ineffective. Improves catchability homemade hook and prevents the disruption of fish caught returnable spike. Still, better to have left dozens of these fish hooks of various sizes. Places they do not take up a lot and almost weightless. In the absence of individual hooks emergency kit should be stored in a plastic or tin penalchike sewn into clothing. In an extreme case, you can stick a few hooks in clothing from the body in a remote location — the valve pocket, lapel collar on the outside. In a hat to keep the hooks should not be, because it is easy to lose. Next to it is advisable to sew hooks to hit the road in mid-sized ring scaffold. Hook and line — the basis of any fishing rod. Peg hooks to the line preferably with the help of special fishing knots. They are more reliable invented on the fly. A hook in an emergency too valuable to risk it. When other sites are best to impose more and be sure to test the strength. In the course of fishing should periodically inspect and tighten knots. When fishing for predatory fish hooks should not tie directly to the line, and a metal leash, made from a piece of wire, metal wire stems, or other material that fish will not be able to eat. Catchability hook depends on the severity of its sting. With blunt hooks fish breaks more often. Therefore, it is in an emergency hook, especially its sting, should be protected from damage: do not give up on the earth, nor in any way to stick to the rod, wood or bark, wipe, dried, cleaned of residual soil and sand periodically sharpened. In difficult conditions to sharpen blunt hook can accurately poshorkav bokovinku of a matchbox, resembling fine sandpaper, or a suitable stone.