Disability — Persistent, long-term or permanent, impaired ability to work due to long term illness or medical condition (congenital defects of the cardiovascular system, bone and articular apparatus, hearing, sight, and the central nervous system of the blood, etc.).
The term "disability" includes both legal and social concepts. For the determination of disability should stop working or changes in working conditions and the appointment of various state social security (pension, employment, prof. Learning, prosthetics, etc.), which is guaranteed by Soviet law.
Examination of long-term or permanent disability is medical labor expert commissions (MLEC) (see medical labor examination).
The severity of disability may be different — from restricted work in the main profession to full disability in all occupations.
Depending on the extent of loss or restricted work establishing the relevant group of disability — the first, second, third.
Basis for establishing First (1) of disability is a disruption of the body, which is not only completely lost earning capacity, but there is a need for continued assistance, care or supervision.
Two (2) of disability is set at a significantly marked functional impairment, which do not call for constant assistance, care or supervision, but lead to a full term or permanent disability, or to a state where the patient may be available only in certain types of work in a specific environment.
Three (3) of disability established persons who for health reasons can not continue labor in their main occupation and profession, an equivalent qualification, and persons who are not allowed to carry out their work on epidemiological indications (eg, tuberculosis). In this case, transfer to another job, a reduction in employment or change in the nature and working conditions lead to lower qualifications. The third group of disability is established as a disability students and people under 40 years old, in need of skills development, as well as disability, persons with low skills or do not have a profession (for the period of training or retraining).
In order to dynamically monitor the progress of the pathological process and the status of disability a systematic re-examination of persons with disabilities in accordance with the Regulations on the MLEC. In some cases (the presence of marked anatomical defects, chronic diseases with irreversible changes) group disability is established without specifying the period of re-examination.
In each case, MLEC in determining disability defines one of the following reasons for it: disability due to general illness, occupational disease, industrial injury, disability from childhood disability to the labor force. According to the national legislation of the USSR establishes a different size of pensions and the nature of other types of social assistance (see Social Security). The definition of disability persons from the military-cm. Disability soldiers.
Disability measures give an idea of the incidence, injuries and other health disorders affect the workforce. The most important are the following indicators of disability: a) intensive index of primary disability, and b) the severity of the disability, and c) the distribution for the first time recognized as disabled by age group, and d) the share was first recognized as disabled for individual nosological forms, and e) indicators rehabilitation. Disability indicators reflect the quality of the organization of health care, the effectiveness of treatment and prevention; state safety at industrial enterprises, state and collective farms and other factors of socio-economic nature.
Disability prevention measures are prevention of disease, injury, started on time, a comprehensive, fully of treatment, measures for the timely management of employment long ill (see Job), the improvement of working conditions and safety of workers.
See also Rehabilitation.

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