Currently, there are a lot of special equipment and systems delivery and reception of signals of distress. This includes the International Space System for Search of damaged vessels and aircraft (COSPAS-SARSAT), automatic radio beacons and other radio systems. Widespread various pyrotechnic signaling equipment — signaling, lighting, smoke missiles.
However, in situations of forced autonomous existence is unlikely that these funds may be at hand. Therefore, we will explore how signaling distress for possible implementation without special hardware.
Signal fires. This is the simplest and most affordable way to feed the signals used by some people from time immemorial to the present. First of all, it is necessary to select a convenient place for fire, well distinguishable both from the ground and from the air. For this purpose, suitable open spaces — the meadows, wide glades, lakes. It is better if the place chosen for the fires is on the hill. We should not forget the fact that this place should be near the camp victims.
To attract the attention of rescuers, to divorce not once, but several fires. Decided to plant three fire located in a line or at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Such figures are international distress signals (Fig. 152). Five fires, forming the letter T, indicate the place suitable for landing, the helicopter.
The distance between the fires must be at least 30 — 50 m
Installation methods of signal fires are shown in Fig. 153.
At night, the fire is visible, dissolved in cover (Fig. 154). This is useful in case if the victim has the polyethylene, light, transparent fabric or parachute.
In an extreme case, you can set fire to single trees, taking care to avoid forest fires.
Preparation fires have to do right away, as soon as necessary to perform the first act or are free men. Each fire is necessary to prepare a good supply of reliable kindling and firewood, a shelter in case of bad weather. It should be remembered that the ready to fuel the fire, ample supply of firewood — a guarantee of a reliable supply signal rescuers, released or taken off to help the victims. For a quick, guaranteed signal kindling fires around them should arrange duty, supporting the so-called small spark fires.
In wetland soils signal fires must be placed on the floor of the timber (Fig. 155).
Clearly visible fires divorced rafting, designated by some distance from the shore and anchored or linked with ropes (Fig. 156).
Smoke signals work best in clear and windless days. In doing so they are visible at a distance of 80 km. To increase the amount of smoke in a fire to throw wet twigs, grass (prepared in advance). However, in winter and in bad weather in the summer so the smoke is barely noticeable. This time of year is easily visible black smoke. You can use the rubber, plastic or car oil.
At night, need a bright fire of dry wood. Such a fire pilot is able to see at a distance of 20 km. On the ground it is visible from a distance of 10 km.
If for some reason failed to breed only one fire, it is recommended to periodically cover cloth, thick branches of spruce fir twigs. This pulsating fire get the attention of rescuers than constantly burning.
Good effect for detecting the location of using a signal mirror — heliograph. The brightness of the light signal, "bunny" this mirror at an angle of 90 ° of the sun reaches about 7 million candles. Outbreak of such a mirror is seen from a plane flying at a height of 1 — 2 km, a distance of 20 — 25 km.
The simplest signal mirror can be made of a metal plate, polish it from both sides. Detection range of the signal will depend on the degree of polishing. In the center of the plate to do the hole diameter of 5 — 7 mm. Through the hole of the plate should be watched for aircraft will be used (Fig. 157).
Then, without losing sight of the object, the mirror should be turned to the sun. Finding that appears on the face or clothes sunlight (light glare), it is necessary, turning mirror, a reflection of his combine on the back of the mirror with a hole. In a situation where the reflected solar flare with the corresponding hole mirror, the light signal is directed to the aircraft. Signals in this way — a complex exercise and requires preliminary training. Even without seeing or hearing the aircraft, you can periodically run through the light "bunny" along the horizon line.
As the reflective surface can be used at hand reflective materials — tin, metal
Skuju foil (including the wrapping of chocolate), the usual pocket mirror. If the victim has an adequate supply of the foil, its pieces can hang on the branches of a tree. Reflecting the sun's rays at different angles, they will attract the attention of rescuers from afar. With the same purpose can be decomposed pieces of foil on the hill. Foil before it needs to be slightly mash, creating a lot of reflecting planes located at different angles.
Rescuers developed and used International code table (Fig. 158).
Signals are laid on and visible from the air field — glades, nezalesennyh hillsides. Recommended size of signals — not less than 10 meters long, 3 meters wide and 3 meters between the marks. For making signs, you can use any materials available to the victims. The main requirement — they must be well-defined on the surface. For putting signs suitable clothing, tents, sleeping bags, life jackets, etc.
In the absence of equipment can dig up the sign, removing the sod and putting it (inverted) next to the trench, increasing the width of the sign. Clearly visible in the snow mark, lined with spruce fir twigs. Examples of equipment signs are shown in Fig. 159.
Can significantly reduce the aircraft can be signaled to the International Aeronautical Emergency gesture signaling (Fig. 160).
Responses from the aircraft can be as follows (Fig. 161): You see — turn in the horizontal plane (a circle on detected human beings) or green rocket.
Expect on-site assistance, after you arrive helicopter — flying in a horizontal plane "eight" or a red rocket.
Go in that direction — flying aircraft over wrecked in direction of movement or yellow rocket.
Roger — swinging from wing to wing or white rocket. Night: twice on and off
landing lights or navigation lights. The absence of these signs indicates that sign from the from the ground, is not accepted.
You do not understand — flying "snake" and two red rockets.
Mark the direction of landing and the landing — a dive followed by entering a turn or two green rockets.
Data signals (Fig. 162). They are used in cases where it is necessary to leave the disaster area or camp.
It should always be left well-marked sign — an arrow indicating the direction in which the victims are gone. It is also necessary to mark the route of any signs.