First aid to people in an emergency situation, which led to serious injuries, especially to:

verify that pulse; turn on your stomach and clean mouth;

tourniquet for bleeding, apply a bandage to the wound, fracture splint.


Categorically unacceptable

leave the victim in a coma lying on your back, pillow your head bag, backpack, folded clothes, carry or transport the injured from the scene unless absolutely necessary (the threat of landslide, avalanche, explosion, etc.);

remove debris from the wound, or other items unless necessary;

reduce a fallen bodies in the wound with penetrating injuries, combined bone fragments in open fractures, to give the victim drink with penetrating injuries abdominal disturb the victim and forced to move unless absolutely necessary.

On examination, the victim must be as closely as possible to assess the general condition, the type and severity of injury, consider how you help to decide what it will take in this particular situation, with or without the kit.

In severe cases (arterial bleeding, unconsciousness, choking) first aid should be provided immediately, but in a way that was not reflected in haste as this help.

In assessing the overall condition of the victim, if he is conscious, from the first to it is possible to determine the safety issues and the clarity of his mind. The so-called stupor, when one could hardly come into contact, drowsy and lethargic, and loss of consciousness — threatening symptoms. Signs of severe injury or condition are also sharp pale, gray skin, slow breathing rate (less than 15 per minute) or more frequent it (30 per minute), no pulse, weak or rapid pulse (less than 40 or more than 120 beats per minute).

On examination, one must carefully examine and palpate victim's head, torso, limbs, comparing the right and left sides. It is easier to determine the wound, the risk of blood loss, broken bones, bruises. It is more difficult to identify the injury of the pelvis, spine, chest and abdomen. In the presence of the victim consciousness and he often points to the injury, there feeling the pain.

In an extreme situation when deciding on some form of assistance or transportation and, especially, with limited or even complete absence of drugs is better to overestimate the risk of injury, than to underestimate it.

Most often, the first service starts with a complete or partial withdrawal of clothes and shoes of the victim. In order to avoid possible complications and causing additional injury, observe the following rules:

clothing should be removed from a healthy part of the body, if the clothes stuck to the wound, the fabric should not tear, and need to cut it around the wound;

with heavy bleeding clothes need to quickly cut through and by expanding to make room injured;

with severe lower leg or foot injuries (where there is suspicion of fracture) should be cut along the seam shoes backdrop (if a knife), and then take off, releasing in the first place, the heel. Do not forget to unlace shoes!

in the absence of a knife or other cutting instrument

clothing and footwear must be even more carefully unfastened preliminary all buttons, zippers and other fastening cuffs, etc.;

when removing the clothes and shoes of the injured extremity (arm or leg) victim needs assistant that this will certainly be careful to maintain;

victim undress completely without a special need, especially during the cold season, it is undesirable. In such cases, only release the injured body part. It is best to do this, if the cutting tool to cut a "window" so that after bandaging and bleeding can be lowered to close the flap clothes and bare body.

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