There are indications that certain types of insect saliva has neurotoxic effects. Moreover, among the salivary glands that produce poisonous secret, often called submandibular.
Representatives of all known insect possessing virulence relate to two families: schelezubov and shrews.
Schelezubov family. Represented in the modern fauna of two species: the Haitian paradox or alkaline-lezub Solenodon paradoxus and Cuban S. cubanus, species names that reflect their distribution — by the islands of Haiti and Cuba.
Externally schelezuby resemble very large shrews long legs. His name was a feature of the structure of the teeth — the second mandibular incisor is on the inside of a deep groove or slot, which is suitable duct submandibular glands that produce poisonous secret. Schelezuby mainly eat a variety of invertebrates and small vertebrates, but eat and vegetarian food. It is noted that schelezuby not immune to its own poison, since the death of the animals was observed repeatedly during fights even minor wounding.
The family of shrews. Shrew jaws armed with teeth ostrobugorchatymi act as serrated forceps, allowing to grasp and hold the moving prey — insects, which are the basis of the diet of most species. In the literature, there are indications that the saliva of certain Neomys, cryptotis, blarina, sorex has non-toxic properties. However, special studies of the chemical composition of the venom and the mechanisms of its action are virtually unknown. Describes only the actual observations of the paralyzing saliva shrews in the hunt for amphibians.
It is possible that the acquisition of virulence secretion of salivary glands in the lower mammals is one of the tools to hunt for mobile and, compared with the size of the predator, a major victim.