Plague (black plague, the "Black Death" bubonic plague, Oriental Plague) is an acute, contagious disease of wild rodents vysokoletalnym. In humans the most common form of bubonic plague.
Onset is usually sudden, with a rapid rise in temperature to 39-40 ° C, with a rapid pulse and rapid breathing. In severe cases, there is confusion with the phenomena of excitation.
Characteristic is the red eyes and skin, oblo language of strength, as well as nausea and vomiting. As a rule, there is a strong concern. In some cases, patients sometimes manic, in others — drowsiness or koma.U children very frequently observed seizures.
Bubo formation is observed in 75% of cases. Buboes are swollen lymph nodes usually in the groin or armpit. When completed they reach the size of a hen's egg, there are hard and elastic.
As a result of localized hemorrhage on the body, there are black spots. Because of these spots disease called "black death." They can appear about the third day of illness.
The acute stage of the disease with high fever lasts 2-5 days, and then, if successful outcome, the temperature is slowly decreasing and for about two weeks, return to normal.
Sometimes the disease is mild, called "smaller plague". In this case, the temperature is low or normal, but can form buboes.
Pathogen: bacteria Pasteurella pesnis. Method of distribution:
In the wild reservoir of infection are wild rodents, vectors — fleas. During epidemics of the disease is transmitted to domestic rats who die as a result of the disease, and fleas in search of food are a new owner. They can be fed either a rat or a person, especially if the number of rats as a result of mortality from the disease is dramatically reduced. Bubonic form of the disease in humans usually occurs through the bite of infected fleas. Feces of infected fleas also contain disease-causing microbes, and when they enter the body through the skin into the bite and in places other damage to the skin can become infected. Possible contamination from an infected person by airborne droplets.
Artificial, in biological warfare, the method of distribution — spray in the air, contamination of water, food and household items, use of infected insects.
Infectious dose — 3 thousand microbial cells. The incubation period — 2-6 days.
Lethality of the disease:
Without treatment for bubonic form — 30-90%, with pulmonary and septic — usually 100%.
In treatment — less than 10%.
Thus., Plague — an acute, serious epidemic disease, no treatment is usually fatal.