Radiation damage to bones

Radiation damage to bones varied and depend on the age of the patient and the absorbed dose. In children after irradiation germ zones bones even in relatively small doses (150 — 200 rad) may be a delay of growth. However, even after exposure to high doses of bone does not lose the ability to regenerate. Relatively common site of radiation damage of bone in adults is a femoral neck after radiation therapy for cervical cancer, the edges — in patients with breast cancer, the upper and lower jaws — in the treatment of oral cancer, bone limbs — with bone sarcomas. Radiation damage to bones manifested in the form of osteoporosis, education centers of destruction. Less frequent in the development of joint damage and osteophytes Uzury the edges of the articular surfaces and joint space narrowing. Due to the fragility of the bone changes often appear to fractures. Healing of fractures in children and young people occurs within 3-4 months, the old slow, sometimes within 8-12 months, often form false joints. Joining endogenous or exogenous infection leads to radiation osteomyelitis flowing torpidly with the slow separation of seizures (see sequester, sequestration). Infection and thrombosis may increase the zone of necrosis.
After radiation cancer therapy of the oral cavity and that the rules of protection observed atrophy of the alveolar process and tooth loss due to damage to the pulp and odontoblasts. Often this manifests cervical caries tooth teeth become yellow, dull color, loose and easily fall out. Sometimes there is a superficial caries crown with a progressive decrease in the height of the tooth. Radiation caries promotes atrophy of the mucosa of the mouth and a sharp decrease in the secretion of saliva. Caries teeth facilitates the penetration of infection in bone jaw and the development of radiation osteomyelitis, manifested severe pain, swelling and erythema of the surrounding soft tissues, bone destruction, detectable on radiographs, fistula formation and slow discharge of seizures.
Aseptic osteonecrosis occurring radiation do not require special treatment. Fractures occurring in aseptic required immobilization of bone fragments. To enhance the regenerative process recommended systematic blood transfusion, vitamins C, B1, cortisone drugs. When infected with osteonecrosis than restorative treatment necessary to combat the infection. After preparing the patient shows an operation aimed at removing cautious seizures.

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