Starfish (Asteroidea)

In the last century Wolf (1886) observed that the extracts of sea stars were poisonous to rabbits when administered parenterally. Quite often there are cases of death of cats and dogs that ate dried starfish on the beach.

The first toxic saponins of Asterias amurensis, with hemolytic and ihtiotoksicheskim action asterosaponinom were named A and B. In asterosaponinom acid hydrolysis they give steroidal aglycones — asterogeniny I and II, sulfuric acid, and sugar set which is specific for each of asterosaponinov.

Asterosaponiny A and block neuromuscular transmission. Adding them to the solution bathing the isolated nerve-muscle preparation of rat diaphragm, causing the initial rapid contraction of the muscle, with subsequent relaxation, against which develops progressive depression of excitation transfer to indirect stimulation. This effect is irreversible, as repeated and prolonged drug money does not restore its functional activity.

Steroidal saponin, which has surface-active properties, isolated from the starfish Marthasterias glacialis. The toxin causes the death of plaice within 24 hours of fish death occurs as a result of the cytotoxic effect of the toxin on the gill epithelium.

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