The term "topography" is derived from the Greek word "topos", which means "country" and "The Count" — "description." Topography — the science that deals with the study area in order to make maps and plans. Surveyors using special optical instruments photographed terrain from aircraft, were measured on the ground and put on paper all relief. Populated areas, individual buildings, rivers, roads, forests, hills and mountains, power lines, etc. All these elements are called local objects.
The word "map" has been known since ancient times and is translated from Latin means "drawing", a word taken to make the notion of a drawing depicting the earth's surface. Over time, the scope of the term "card" is clarified, and now the card is called reduced, generalized image on the plane of the earth surface or parts.
On the content and general geographic maps are special.
Geographic maps are usually divided into two groups — the topographical and survey. They differ from each other in the level of detail and scope.
Topographic map — is a large-scale geographic maps (from 1:10 to 1:1 OOO OOO OOO), which reflects the elements of the natural and cultural landscape areas with the greatest detail allowed by the scale.
Survey geographic maps of smaller scale, less detailed, and provides general orientation.
Special cards give a specific description of the site. The subject of their content is an element of geographical landscape (climate, soil, population, etc.). At each special map for orientation with
preserved geographic basis maps as a generalized hydrography, settlements and Transport, etc., the selection of which depends on the purposes for which the card is used.
In addition, there are maps of training, sea, flying, hiking, travel, sports, etc.
For hikers, skiers and tourists who, during the campaign moves on the earth's surface slowly, leisurely pace, it is very important to have a topographic map, ie large-scale map, which shows in detail all the important details to guide local — local items.
Without the topographic map (or at least simplified copies of it) the traveler can not do. Without it like a blind man can not know where to go to get to the goal on the planned route. Yes, and you can map out a route march, just having the card. Without it, the tourist should always ask people, or ask any of the locals to become a conductor.
Topographic map tells you where travelers will be able to break the evening bivouac and cook food as a short walk to the target, which can meet the obstacles and how best to get around. Map will help you find points of interest on the ground, which is useful to meet travelers.
If, during the big trip in the forest or in the mountains tourists lose your card, it can be torn down, the planned route fails. But there are times and worse, when people are killed, lost without a map in the forest, in the mountains. Therefore, the traveler should not only be able to use a topographic map, and save it in a campaign.
If you take the picture area, made from aircraft (aerial), then it has, unfortunately, not all local objects can see. On the aerial photograph may not be visible, many items placed in the woods, hiding their crown. The path in the field, a small pedestrian bridge, telegraph line, fences, fords the river, wells and more on aerial photographs also do not see it. But it will be clearly visible shadows of local objects — houses, trees, high fences, towers, etc. For these reasons, aerial photographs of areas unsuitable for use and can not replace the present topographic map.
Topographic map — is made on paper in the colors of the drawing area, ie, its image in the conventional topographic signs in much reduced form.
A variety of topographic maps are images on paper or small sections of terrain objects — the plan area. On the plan can be given to such details, which can not be given on the map, as they are in a strong reduction of lost.
In a campaign often have to deal with the scheme area — a simplified drawing of the terrain, composed by card or directly from nature. It is also often used sketches — drawings terrain made with a specific practical purpose by the visual survey, detailed mapping terrain elements that are important for a specific task, such as lifting the pass, etc.
In recent years, much widespread sports cards, which are classified as special-purpose cards and are designed for orienteering event. Usually the area of sports cards is about 10 km 2, the scale — 1:5000, 1:10 000, 1:15 000, 1:20 000 and 1:25 000) sports cards is performed in special symbols, generally not very different from the topographic . Their main purpose — to give athletes information about the places he needs when choosing a path of movement. They are signs that show cross forests, wetlands, trails, etc. For ease of reading on the run on the sports map, as opposed to topographic, not painted wood, and open space — fields, meadows, clearings in the forest.
For tourist travel is very good map or chart the scale of 1: 100 000, which has all the necessary information. But often we have to use a categorical march over small-scale schemes in which many parts of the route plotted by previous groups. Upon conducting a campaign weekend training trip is best to use the sports map that to a high degree of accuracy is applied all of the information about the area.
Value (degree) reduce areas on the map called the scale.
The decrease is very large: ten, fifty, one hundred thousand times and more. So greatly reduce the image area on the map in order to make it convenient to use it. One can not make a map, for example, the section from Moscow to St. Petersburg on a scale that reduces the locality of two to ten times: the distance is more than 600 km, and if it reduced even a hundred times, the card is made on a sheet of paper more than 6 km, will be completely useless — it can not be used. Yes, and this card will weigh about 18 tons, for paper — heavy stuff.
In such a large scale, such as 1:100, 1:1000 or 1:5000, make special cards only very small areas of land — construction sites, fields, forests, parks, areas or small towns. They are called not maps, and plans terrain.
Accepted produce topographic maps on a scale:
1:10 LTD (one in ten thousand);
1:25 LTD (one to twenty five thousand);
1: 50 OOO (one to fifty thousand);
1:100 Ltd. (one in a hundred thousand);
1: 200 000 (one to two hundred thousand).
The scale of each map is expressed most often in the form of a fraction, the numerator of which is always one, and the denominator — the number that indicates how many times the reduced image of the terrain on the map. This type is called a numerical scale. With the denominator numerical scale of the map is always possible to calculate the actual distance between any two points of the terrain. For example, if the map scale of 1:50 000, a ruler measuring the distance between any two points, we get a distance equal to 7 cm, then, knowing that on this map the whole area is reduced to 50 000 times, multiply 7 by 50 cm 000 and get 350 000 cm (ie 3500 meters, or 3.5 miles).
In addition to the numerical scale may have other views — verbal (natural) and linear (graphic). For example, the scale of 1: 25 000 may be expressed in words: one centimeter card contains twenty-five thousand centimeters area, scale 1:100 000 can be expressed as follows: one centimeter cards — one hundred thousand centimeters areas.
However, since the surface of the earth is measured in such small quantities as centimeters (or even meters), uncomfortable, you should be able to quickly transform the scale denominator in larger units — in miles. Here's how: crossed out (mentally) in the denominator of the last two digits, we get the number of meters.
For example: 1: 100 Opcf — in the denominator to get 1000 meters If cross out three characters (for a total of five), we obtain the denominator the number of kilometers.
For example: 1: by 190-600 — in the denominator to get 1 km.
Another example: 1: 25 00vS This scale in-kind (verbal) expression is read: one centimeter card matches two hundred and fifty meters on the ground.
Linear (graphic) scale is a straight line that is divided into several segments. Each segment concluded some round number of meters or kilometers area. The left-most section of the linear scale, in addition, is divided into fractional parts.
Linear (graphic) scale fifty thousandth card is as follows (Figure 56).
Map-kilometrovke linear scale would look like this (Figure 57).
Linear scale on the map to determine the distance in a straight line between any two points of the route, even when you do not have any on hand measuring tools. For this to apply to the two points on the map, between which you want to measure the distance, a narrow strip of paper and a pencil to make the finishing touches on it in front of the points. Then you have to put a strip of paper to the linear scale of the cards so that the first stroke was against a division of the right of the zero point and the left bar was on the left-zero interval scale (Fig. 58). Against the right dash read the whole amount of kilometers (in this case — 4), and against the left dash can easily determine the share of kilometers and get the result — 4.6 km.
There is a saying, "read a map." In a broad sense, to "read" — that means visually perceive and solve the value of any graphical information, whether ancient inscriptions or drawings on stone, books, papers, drawings, maps, letters, notes, as well as topographic maps and plans.
Look at the map: there you will see a lot of names printed in plain words, there are also numbers, lines, and a lot of icons in different colors, sizes and shapes. This topographic-
NESCO symbols marked on the map, local items.
In the bottom of the card placed its scale, which is given in three forms — numerical, verbal and linear.
The card has a frame that consists of internal fine lines and two external fat lines. The upper part of the frame is called the north, the bottom — the south, the left — west, and the right — east. Over the north side of the frame (top map sheet) provides alpha-numeric designation of the map sheet — his code (nomenclature). After all, to each sheet topographic map from all sides and from all four corners of the other sheets adjoin neighboring terrain maps, and those sheets, in turn, also have "neighbors" from all sides. For example, if you take even a narrow strip of area, located between Moscow and St. Petersburg (650 km), then the image of the band on the topographic map of the fifty thousandth scale (2 cm maps are 1 km area) is going to need about 30 individual map sheets.
Here's to not get lost in these pages to be always easy to find, every single leaf has its code, its portfolio — a system of digital and lettering sheets.
All of the "field" card is lined with thin black vertical and horizontal lines on the squares. Vertical lines are north-south, and the horizontal — west-east. These lines form a so-called grid map. If you measure the part of any of the squares of the grid on maps 1:10 000, 1:25 000 and 1:50 000 scale, it appears that they are on the scale of the map is 1 km area. That is, their length will be: Map 1:10 000 — 10 cm on the map 1: 25 000 — 4 cm on the map 1: 50 000 — 2 cm
Each square is a rectangular grid in these maps is therefore 1 km2 area.
On topographic maps of smaller scale — one hundred thousandth (1 100 000) and two hundred thousandth (1:200 000) — make the grid exactly 1 km impossible: it would be too frequent, "thick" and interfere map reading. Because, for example, on a map of scale 1: 200 000 a distance of 1 km is equal to 5 mm (1 cm — 2 km). Consequently, the grid would be such a fine, as a school student's exercise book in a cage. Therefore, on these maps the grid do so: Map 1:100 000 at 2 cm (which is 2 km), map 1: 200 000 in 5 cm (equivalent to 10 km).
Make it easy to look at the maps of the squares of the grid, between the inner and outer frames stake numbers that indicate the number of each grid line — its coordinate. On the western and eastern sides of the frame from the bottom up (from south to north of the map) are the numbers that are called abscissas (they denoted by the letter X). On the northern and southern sides of the frame cards left to right (west to east cards) are the numbers that are called coordinates (to be marked with the letter Y).
Two people who are far away from each other on the phone or radio can exchange information and to find on the map the same square they need, such as the forest, where there was a fire, or some other site, is where to throw in helicopters people or gear, equipment, products. The grid will greatly facilitate their task.
Finally, another important property of each topographic map, which must always be borne in mind — the age of the map. Take a sheet of a topographic map and find it, and the date of the edition of the map. And now calculate how old she is, and think about what matters to us her age — "young" it or "old." Than a card "younger", the more likely it reflects what actually is on this terrain. The "old" map should believe less so as time on the ground as a result of economic activity or natural cycles necessarily something has changed that on this map are not reflected. It is easy to understand that in the area where the population density is greater, faster, it was modified: people convert territory — and break the build, cutting down old forests and planting new ones, erected a dam on the river, creating ponds, reservoirs, build railroads and highways, drained swamps, build factories, cities, towns.
All this must be taken into account travelers, they should be prepared to the fact that during the campaign the "old" card, which they enjoy, they may in some ways to cheat, that is, not quite match the terrain.
Hikers need a topographical map of the area of the planned hike in order to use it to get directions correctly first campaign, and then successfully complete the planned route — reliably and accurately target areas. It is desirable that the card was not a very old age and sufficiently detailed scale.
Sometimes you need to determine the scope of that map for some reason is missing. There are several ways to do this.
First of all, the scale can be determined by kilometer grid, knowing that between the lines of an integer number of kilometers (talk about this later).
The map scale can be determined by the distance between the local objects on the map. Thus, it can be easily determined by measuring the distance on the map between kilometer posts on the highway.
You can also determine the scale of the map, comparing it with another card, the scale of which is known.
And the most common way — direct measurement of distances between objects in the area shown on the map.