The person is in a situation of autonomous existence, along with the definition of the direction of access to housing can be a problem organizing the night. If you can not find their way around, find the trail or the road to reach the village, you should think about building a simple temporary shelter for the night.
There are more than hundreds of different designs of temporary shelters, which differ in size, used for building materials, complexity. The choice of a design depends on the specific conditions of extreme situations — weather conditions, terrain, presence of vegetation available to the affected material (plastic film, fabric, etc.).
Before you begin construction of the shelter, should clearly define its primary purpose. For this it is necessary to take into account the factors that influence the choice of a cover (Figure 9):
presence of rain or other precipitation;
presence of insects;
availability of materials for construction;
duration of the proposed parking lot;
the number and physical condition of the distressed.
Should take into account such important factors as the skills in civil engineering and the availability of knives, axes, saws.
In warmer months, if polyethylene film or a fabric you can quickly build a canopy that will not only protect from the sun and rain, but will be suitable for the organization of the night. Some construction sheds in Fig. 132. Of the same materials can be made tent or tepee (Figure 133). Their advantage is that they
able to protect against cold night air, and the mosquitoes and midges. In the lodge, if they could give the top of the cone aperture, you can even build a fire and sleep in comfort at low frost.
But not always people going off into the woods, is carrying a plastic film or the like. In the taiga and forest area can make a canopy of branches, placing them on the lower branches of the tree. A safe and comfortable shelter — a tent. Basis, the framework for it can serve as poles leaning against the tree trunk, rectified from the lower branches. It stacked branches — spruce branches (Fig. 134).
Vyvorochennoe rooted tree (better — spruce) can be used as the basis for another kind of shelter. For his device removed all the lower and upper branches and placed them on the side, sinking to the ground. Obtained from two sides tight roof slopes shelter. It can accommodate 2 — 3 people.
If such a tree nearby, then frame tent can be made any other way. One of the options presented in Fig. 135. Laying branches on the roof frame tent made from the bottom up, as laid shingles.
All options are available to divert rain water flowing at the base of buildings, it is necessary to dig drainage schuyu groove. In the absence of a sleeping bag and thermal insulation,
onnogo rug underlay can serve as dry grass, branches, fir lapnik1.
On the ground inside the hut to do flooring of spruce branches. If the land is quite wet, you should make a deck made of poles, logs, and on top of it already decking spruce branches.
For the organization of the night in the autumn, and in the presence of sleeping bags or warm clothes and winter you can build a shed and used to heat the fire nodyu (Fig. 136). Device overnight campfire — consuming task, as will prepare 2 — 3 dry tree trunk for a fire. In winter the snow on the ground it is necessary to clear a campfire, and if the snow deep, then make flooring from raw logs. Suitable for fire logs with a diameter 20 — 35 cm Smaller logs quickly burn out, and at night they have to change.
Heat radiated by the fire, will be reflected from the canopy and warm sleeping. With the same purpose flooring can be slanted to the fire and below the fire. With this arrangement, the sleeping will heat and direct the flow of energy coming from the fire.
You can build a shelter, using the terrain. For example, in the mountains to find small grottos and caves. You can use spaces between the rocks. It is important to determine a safe, is not subject to rock falls and flooding the place.
In winter, if dense and thick snow cover in places where there is natural snow pits, slopes, high snow drifts, you can quickly dig snow pits, caves
(Fig. 137). Snow — a good building material, with high thermal insulation.
You can dig a primitive shelter at the foot of a large thick spruce, deepening the depression around the trunk and cutting off the top of skis, poles, branches, and the top film, a tissue (Fig. 138). Its edges are sprinkled with snow or press down the snow blocks. You can pour on top of snow. The bottom line the branches, spruce branches, film.
Under the snow around the tree temperature is 20 — 30 ° C higher than the temperature of the outside air.
The ideal snow shelter — Eskimo hut needle (Fig. 139). Its construction requires certain skills, and the presence of dense compacted snow. For the needle must choose a level surface with the thickness of the snow cover of 80 — 100 cm rope ends describe a circle of radius 75 — 150 cm (the construction of larger needle requires a truly high-skill). After this you should prepare the snow blocks the size of 60x60x20 cm for the first series, and 60 x 30 x 10 cm for walls. Increasing the size of the blocks does not gain speed construction, the blocks are heavy and broken during transportation.
Plate first line set at 20 — 25 ° C and cut at an angle, so as to lay the next series of spirals with increasing slope inside cabin (each coil approximately 5 °). The angle of inclination of the upper row is 45 °, and the diameter of the top opening will be about 50 — 70 cm
Reliability design hut (after 5 -6 hours after the completion of the dome can sit her three adult person) achieved a spherical shape, laying tiles in a spiral shape and plates, the outer surface area of which must be greater than the inside. That does not give them the opportunity to fall inside.
Each plate should have three points of contact with neighboring plates: the lower bound — two corner interior points, from the previous plate — upper inner right corner. Therefore, before installing the stove is shaped trapeze right size. Fitting plate is already on the wall. The side edges of adjacent panels are cut so as to achieve a reliable contact in all three locations.
All vertical joints of the lower row of tiles should overlap the top row of tiles, and some plates overlap two joints. Otherwise, with decreasing diameter spiral plates are reduced so that the control points much closer together and the upper rows of plates become unstable. The hole at the top cover plate. Caulk the gap between the plates and pieces of crust clog loose snow.
Login to make a needle in a manhole below the floor level, so that output of carbon dioxide and store heat in the cabin.
If the group decides to wait for help on the site, you need to take care of a safe haven, shelter from materials in which you can organize a proper rest. The first step is to determine, on what environmental factors should protect shelter from wind, rain, snow, low temperatures, heat, etc. Further choice depends on the availability of "building blocks" and the tools available. To quantify the amount of shelter as a group. When choosing the type of asylum should be taken into account and the experience of victims in its construction.
In any case, we should strive to build reliable, robust construction, even if the process takes a long time. A limitation of this can only be a lack of the necessary tools and materials at hand.
However, the requirement for a careful choice of cover does not preclude the construction of the first night for any simple shelter.
Construction should begin with a careful choice of place of refuge. This should take into account all the requirements for a camp site selection, as described above (see "Organization of tourist life.
Halts and sleep "). For this reason, it is not necessary to begin construction in the second half of the day, without prior inspection vicinity. Start building it is necessary, only by selecting the most convenient, secure location. To all previous requirements we must add those that are dictated by the emergency. Encampment must be clearly visible from the air and from the ground, that victims have always had the opportunity to file distress and to be seen in the organization of their search. Near the camp should be an adequate supply of dry wood as well as fuel, capable of giving a lot of smoke when burning.