Those who have been in the forest, knows how difficult it is to move among the rubble and windbreaks in gustolese, overgrown with bushes. The apparent similarity of the situation — the trees, terrain folds, etc. — can completely disorient a person and he often moves around, unaware of his mistake. A similar case described Arsenyev, lost once — in the Ussuri taiga:.
However, even without a compass to navigate to the cardinal can be through a variety of features. For example, the trees on the north side have a rough bark, thick overgrown with moss and lichen at the foot. The bark of birch and pine trees on the north side is darker than the south, and the trunks of trees, rocks, ledges covered with thick moss and lichens. Resin droplets on the trunks of coniferous trees stand out from the north less abundant than yuzhnoy.Vse these symptoms is useless to seek in the trees of the thicket. But they are clearly marked on single trees of the field or on the edge. In the spring, the thaw, the snow lasts longer on the northern slopes of hills and hillocks. Ant from the north usually reserved trunk of the tree, a bush, a rock. They were on the north side is steeper. Fungi have the feature that they are noticed more remarkable Russian writer ST Aksakov.
To sustain the chosen direction, usually scheduled some well-marked landmark every 100-150 m of the route. This is especially important if the path was blocked by a blockage or a dense thicket of bushes that force to deviate from the straight direction. Attempting to go ahead is always fraught with the injury, which will exacerbate an already difficult situation in distress. The most insidious obstacles — marshes and bogs. Their surface is covered by a shaky solid cover of moss, creating a false appearance of a solid, reliable soil. To avoid the risk, it is better to avoid these natural traps. Take a shortcut is allowed only as a last resort when there is no other choice. Must overcome the swamp with the utmost care and always armed with a long-lasting sixth. It is held horizontally on the chest. Collapsed, are in any case not to flounder. Chosen should slowly, leaning on a pole, making no sudden movements, trying to give the body horizontal. For a short rest in passing through the swamp you can use the outputs of solid rock. Water hazards, especially rivers with fast currents and a rocky bottom, overcome without removing shoes for better balance. Before taking the next step to probe the bottom of the sixth. Should move sideways, sideways to the stream to flow knocked down.
Extremely difficult transition in the forest in winter, when snow is deep and does not maintain body weight. Overcome areas without snow ski-snowshoe impossible. These skis are made with a certain skill as a frame of two branches of a thickness of 2 — 2.5 cm and a length of 140 — 150 cm front end ski, to steam in hot water, folded up, and the frame (width at center should not be less than 30 cm ) braided thin, flexible branches. In the anterior third of the four ski cross and two longitudinal strips make footing size shoes.
In winter you can walk on the beds of frozen rivers, while respecting the necessary precautions. Thus, we must remember that during the usually destroys ice from below, and it is particularly thin under snowdrifts have steep banks, which in rivers with sandy shoals often form incrustations, which, freezing, turning into a kind of dam. The water usually finds a way along the shore under the drifts, near snags, rocks, where the flow is faster. In cold weather, sinters soar, recalling the smoke of human habitation. But more often sinters hidden under deep snow, and they are difficult to detect. Therefore, all the obstacles in the river ice better than to circumvent, in the bend of the rivers should stay away from the steep bank, where the flow is faster and the ice so thin. Often, after the freezing river water level decreases so rapidly that a thin layer of ice formed pockets are dangerous for pedestrians. On the ice, which seems strong enough, and no other way, moving on all fours. In spring the ice is the most thin in areas overgrown with reeds, in the flooded bushes.
Even small streams taiga are quite passable for light inflatable boats and rafts. For the future of the raft choose 4 — 5 dead wood (pine, spruce, larch) diameter 20 — 30 cm far from the shore to facilitate carrying of the water. After cleaning the trunks of the branches at the end of their nick and carefully fasten the cross bars and a flexible rope or vine. In the center of the raft you can build a small shelter (tent) of rain and wind and prepare a place for a fire, pour a layer of sand or gravel. To control the raft cut down 2 — 3 long pole. Can serve as an anchor of heavy stone with a strong rope.
Loading Unit is made by tying a small stone 20 — 30-foot tether. Having thrown a stone at a tree standing at the shore, it is easy for him to pull the raft. Management raft charge most experienced in this matter member. However, apart from his assigned duty, which is to continuously monitor their surroundings, the appearance of floating barriers, sub-wood, etc. Danger when navigating the taiga rivers are rapids and waterfalls. On approaching them can be found on the rising noise and thunder of falling water. In this case you should immediately approach the dangerous obstacle and avoid dragging the raft by land or towing it along the coast.
As the evening swimming should stop to hit the beach by selecting the most convenient, gentle place, and before the camp, carefully tie the raft to a good tree.