We continue our exploration of water in search of bread races ences.
In Carr lake, and sometimes on the edge of the swamp thicket of towering etsya slender plants with thin black velvet cones and linear, like grasses, leaves. You call this plant cane, and sometimes reeds. In fact it is neither one thing nor the other — is cattails.
You probably will not again used its stems, up to 2 mW ditch as spears in the game, and did not suspect that this is an edible plant. Back in 1868 in Astrakhan baked from flour Rogozov delicious biscuits and cakes.
Cattail or Coogan is the scientific name: typhoid latifoliya (Typha latifolia). The name comes from the Greek word: "typhos" — "smoke" as cattail cobs black, as if burned; "latifolia" — "Broad."
Reedmace belongs to the family Rogozov. Cerned for the black cop — is pistillate inflorescence of female flowers. At the top of the inflorescence in early bloom is off-white inflorescence of male flowers with three stamens each. It quickly fades and withers.
Reedmace wind pollinated. The seeds are covered with hairs, and gives to the priest in the water, stay on the surface of two or three days, and then drown. Inflorescences cattail fluff from earlier added to fluff rabbits in the manufacture of felt hats. Long stems are flexible and cattail. durable. Leaves reach 3 meters in length, with up to twenty vessels with air baffles, visible to the naked eye. Young botanists sometimes mistake them for the cell.
Cattail stalks and leaves can be used for silage. Of these, weave mats and baskets. In Ukraine, the cattail stalks covered vayut roof. Stem from strong fibers make ropes. The wood used to make paper.
But we are interested in the other part of cattail — rhizome. It is 60 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters thick. In dry rhizome contains 46 percent starch, 11 percent sugar and 24 percent proteins. From rhizomes can cook nutritious flour and bake bread and even biscuits. From the same flour make jelly.
To prepare the meal for chopping roots slices CI 0.5-1 centimeter and dry in the oven for as long as they do not split up the dry crackling. Then grind in a mortar or coffee grinder.
Toasted slices can be used as rootstocks to Fe, in its raw form to use for fattening pigs. BLADE indigenous cattail shoots are tender and taste like asparagus.
Together with cattail marshes and along rivers and lakes are meeting great thickets cane.
Reeds as tall as cattails, but stem it — straw, leaves a thin, gray-green color. At the top of the stem thick brush (30-40 inches long) dark purple spikes (in 1 centimeter length). The leaves are turning cane edge to the wind, and the flexible straw is bent, but not broken. In the wind, all the leaves are cane on one side, waving like a flag, indicating the direction of the wind, like a weather vane.
Reed reproduces by rhizomes, entangling moist soil and thus contributing to woo overgrown lakes and wetlands, as well as the formation of cane peat.
Reed family of cereals, bread akin to plants. Its scientific name — fragmites communist (Phragmites com munis), from the Greek word "phragma -" fence "," fence "and the Latin" communis "-" common. "
Since ancient times the cane are used for roofing, make him the boards, fences and walking sticks. Young rhizomes is attained length 2.5 meters. They are tender and sweet; eat them raw, roasted and boiled. Rhizomes and use as a medicinal, diaphoretic. In raw cane rhizomes 5 per cent sugar. From the rhizomes of reed making flour and coffee, as well as of cattail.
Reed rhizome take out rakes, hooks, or "cat mi", sometimes with a depth of 1 meter. Collect them next spring before flowering cane in the early summer or late fall. Flowering rush in June — July.
Many old sad songs and stories tell of how cane made from cut a pipe — a pipe. And a flute suddenly started singing voice of a man who was buried in the place where I grew up cane.
It has long been made of cane required part Klar netov and flutes — vibrating "tongue", so-called reed. The first botanist Theophrastus, in his book "The study of plants," described in detail how to cut cane reed — "language" for flute and flute.
Our cane akin to African and sugar cane. Stem last (thickness of 5 cm and a height of 6 met ditch) is filled with a fragrant sweet heart. In it 20 percent sugar. In Africa and South America from the stalks of sugar cane produced sugar.
In ancient India to bond stones at buildings ka Menschikov used lime, mix the juice of sugar cane, which gave strength centuries old towers and temples.
Sugar cane is also found in the wild in the marshes, where they love to feast on elephants.
Half the world's production of sugar is produced from sugar cane. His many on the island of Cuba.
Sugar cane is grown in the Soviet Union — in Tajik and Uzbek republics.