All items are shown on local maps special conventional topographical signs. Surveyors come up with these characters so that they possibly were similar to local objects themselves, and the size to fit them to scale. For example, the forest on the maps depicted in green (in fact he is actually green) houses and other structures depicted rectangles, because when viewed from the top (the plane), then they really are almost always rectangular in shape; River , streams, lakes depicted in blue as the water, reflecting the sky, too, we feel blue. But not always, of course, be just in shape, color and size to represent each local subject on the map. Take, for example, the highway, with a width of 20 m at the map one hundred thousandth (1 mm 100 m) such a road would have to draw a line thickness of one-fifth of a millimeter, and the 1:200 000 maps that line would have to do even thinner — 0.1 mm.
And what can we say about the narrow stream, dirt roads and trails, the telegraph lines? They really could not be seen on the map. But you need to be shown on the map and show so that they could clearly see. It was then decided to surveyors small (or narrow) in size, but very important local objects on topographic maps depict special — vnemasshtabny-mi signs, that is, those signs that do not correspond to the actual size of local subjects, respectively, reduced the scale of a map. For example, a small soft spot on the bank of the river, from the plane to not make out, and he is depicted on the map blue circle with a diameter of a millimeter, in addition, highways and other major roads make for colorful maps them to, as they say, caught the eyes of every who picked up a topographic map.
Asphalt road, for example, is in reality a grayish color, but on the map it shows a bright red.
Thus, every tourist should remember and be able to understand what the signs on the map are large, and what — vnemas-staff.
All topographic symbols, moreover, can be divided into four types:
1) linear — the roads, transmission lines, power lines, creeks, rivers, etc. That is, they are signs of local objects, which are themselves a form of long lines;
2) curly — a sign of towers, bridges, churches, ferries, power plants, individual buildings, etc.;
3) areal — a sign of forests, wetlands, settlements and arable lands,
meadows — that is, local objects that occupy large areas of the earth's surface. Polygonal characters consist of two elements: the outline and character, filling loop;
4) explanatory — a sign of the forest characteristics, places, railway stations, rivers, lakes, mountains, etc., is the width of the highway, the length, width and load capacity of bridges, the depth of the fords on the rivers and the like.
Almost all linear and shaped signs are vnemasshtabnymi and areal usually correspond exactly to the true size of the local items.
Signs easier to learn and remember, getting to know them in groups, which are formed by the type of terrain features: group Number 1 — roads and road construction; group Number 2 — towns, buildings, group number 3 — drainage system (ie water on earth) group number 4 — vegetation; group Number 5 — relief, group number 6 — explanatory and special tourist signs.