Ecology of the beaver. Modern ecological situation | The survival encyclopedia

Ecology of the beaver. Modern ecological situation

The existence of a beaver, as an active regulator of the hydrological regime, has always been closely connected with the environmental situation in the area and thus the economy of nature. On depletion of easily accessible, non-renewable natural resources and the need for immediate increased use of renewable resources and the theoretical solution to the vast range of environmental problems in the past two decades, more and more dedicated to scientific publications, including large. Note message X. Schindler (Schindler, 1979) that the depletion of natural resources, for example, in the U.S. is characterized by a ton of dry waste to one person per year.

AG Bannikov in the preface to the book Jean Dorst (1968) most important task of Conservation considers the struggle for integrated management and expanded reproduction of renewable natural resources.

VA Egorov et al. (1980), analyzing the "Latin American model of global development" (model "Mir-2" and "World-3 '), is proposed to reduce the rate of economic growth in order to reduce pressure on natural resources and the environment. The authors concluded that to avoid a global ecological disaster is basically impossible if you do not enter control the distribution of capital and not to invest in the restoration, destruction of natural resources and the implementation of other environmental measures. In our opinion, a very weighty to remark that the costs should be sizeable proportion of the total cost of society. However, in the next few years is hardly the opportunity to appear. B. Ziegler (Ziegler, 1979) to analyze and predict the behavior of surrounding human ecosystem has developed a system for measuring and comparing the relationship between what is happening as a result of human activity and the release of energy density of population, on the one hand, and the negative external effect of this energy release on ecosystems — other . He developed the method allows us to express the load experienced by the medium as the sum of the liberation of man power. It emphasizes the ability of a person to harm their living conditions or even destroy them completely — a danger which has increased with the use of machines. Impact on the environment as it interprets the changes in its matrix, caused by this release of energy, again independent of the energy of the sun. Extinction or destruction of a particular type — like the loss column in the matrix — destroys the natural food chain and may damage the existence of the entire ecological community (as it was with the beaver. — MB).

Very threatening environmental situation in the densely populated areas of Germany (Niedl, 1980). According to Mr Needle, with the current level of crops to produce one calorie of food is another's needs ten calories of energy that we spend to get yields of crops in the form of fertilizers and various pesticides. Those, in turn, accumulate in food organisms and consumers of these products. "Our daily poison Give us this day," — ironizuet Needle (Niedl, 1980, S. 254), adding that a lack of healthy instincts, protects the body from harmful products that ultimately we all pay (and long overdue. — M. B.). Extremely gloomy picture paints F. Kurt: "To secure the survival, man had introduced cattle to the farthest corners of the earth. He dammed streams, reclaimed soil, which with the help of fertilizers and biocides began receiving record yields. For short-term success followed by the destruction of huge systems »(Kurt, 1982, S. 26).

Similar view is held by S. Schwartz (1976). According to him, human activities have on the progressive nature of the (usually negative. — MB) and the impact of any precautionary measures only reduce the impact of man on nature, but does not eliminate the risk of deterioration of the environment. He sees the essence of the ecological crisis is not in the fact that as a result of ill-considered actions of the person killed biological natural resources, and that undermines the ability of natural systems to self-regulation (as has already happened to our inland waters. — MB) or a system of self-regulation begins to work against man and mankind (Schwartz, 1976, p. 186, 187). Poisoning of rivers and soil poisons he treats as a deviation from the optimal technology policy, and not as an expression of human industrial society strategy in relation to nature. On the example of artificial reforestation plantings that require billions spent, it offers joint efforts of man and nature. In place of the passive "nature protection" is to come work on the optimal environment and biogeocenoses capable of self-regulation in modified human environment (Schwartz, 1976, p. 190, 191).

Such biogeocenoses certainly are beaver dams in a settlement with man-made landscapes (see the article look at No. 1.15). But because the natural water is an important part of the biosphere and the main object of the environment (Nikolaeiko, 1980, p. 3), for the economic evaluation of the beaver in nature (both in the economy), the main criterion should be the contribution of the settlement in the flow of energy (Odum H. and E., 1978, p. 42).

Analyzing the environmental literature, we find that the closer to the present day, the alarming publications. So, 3. F. Schumacher very common belief is that the problem is solved on land productivity, calls a fatal error, because in reality nothing has been decided, in spite of the economic, technical, and other knowledge, despite the sophisticated physical infrastructure, despite the countless forms of highly advanced technology, we have today (quoted by Wild, 1984, S. 89). B. Wild writes that people around the world is faced with the fact overloading the Earth's ecosystem. Grim picture of the future, drawn by foreign experts, trying to mitigate EK Fedorov (1977), reassuring us statement: "The history of technological progress shows that man developing new production methods, new sources of energy, finds the potential of new types of resources much earlier than is threatened exhaustion still possible (p. 32). " He expressed the hope that science can prevent ecological crisis, but have to admit that our activities are visible and often harmful to our impact on the natural course of natural phenomena on the Earth's surface (Fedorov, 1977, p. 21). After the release of his book of the last decade, but there is not the slightest reason to believe that the general environmental situation has improved. At least with regard to water resources of the Latvian SSR, it has worsened (Zalitis, 1983). According to V. Peskov: "Degradation of nature occurs at such a rate that directly threatens the well-being of many people and the stability of nations" (Sands, 1982, p. 257). One thing is clear: in the opinion of the majority of leading environmentalists, modern ecological situation in the world is alarming and threatening crisis if the population does not change fundamentally its attitude to the use of non-renewable resources and does not replace their products cheap solar energy. In this case, in our view, a major contribution can provide a rational and intensively used resources beaver.

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