Hare | The survival encyclopedia


Hare

Large rabbit. Body length of adult animals ranged from 44 to 65 cm, occasionally up to 74 cm and weight of 2, 5 and 5, 5 lbs. The average size decreases from north-west to south-east. The largest Whites live in the north western and central Siberia, the smallest in the Trans-Baikal and in the Far East. In the painting there is a distinct seasonal dimorphism winter this hare pure white, except for the tips of the ears, which are black, back in the summer coloring reddish-brown, reddish-gray or gray, different between animals from different parts of the range. The head is usually slightly darker colored backs and sides lighter. The belly is white. Tail coloration is similar to the color of the back in both summer and winter, the shape of his round. The ears are long, but much shorter than the hare — bend your ear does not go or only slightly protruding beyond the tip of the nose. Feet wide, in winter they are also bottom densely covered elastic hair. Load on 1 cm2 pads have white hair only 8, 5-12 g, which allows him to move easily even on loose snow. Females are on average slightly larger than males, in color, they do not differ. It is spread almost all over Russia, is not found only in the south of the steppe zone, in Caucasia and in the mountains of the Caucasus. To the north is almost universally comes to the Arctic Ocean, and some inhabit the Arctic islands (Novosibirsk, Vaigach Kolguev). In Siberia, the mountains rise to the tundra and bald areas, that is, to a height of 2000 m Living in different natural zones, hare inhabits a very different land. Populated lands they must meet animal feed needs and provide enough protection. This explains the uneven settling of different areas within the vast range of the species and seasonal redistribution lands in habitats. In the years of high population habitats are more diverse than for medium and low abundance. Almost the entire territory of Russia increased the number of traces in the valleys of large rivers, where the hare finds not only good food conditions, but is saved from parasites, arranging "bath" in the sand on the beaches. The tundra is held primarily in river valleys, lake shores and local relief depressions, ie, temmestam where there are shrubs and, in any case, the vegetation is richer than in the surrounding area. Very characteristic zone tundra. In the taiga zone of the European part of Russia is found everywhere, but the distribution of animals is strongly dependent on the type of habitat and season. Being mostly beasts, almost never occurs in large open moor. On the other hand, small in number and in continuous forest areas, especially in old spruce forests with a high closeness stand, pine, larch. In the forest are most attractive to hare forest dissected valleys of rivers and streams, as well as partially modified by man — with burnt areas overgrown and cuttings (although fresh clearings rabbit rare). In this regard, there is more common near settlements. Very favorable for the kind of central Russia with high mosaic of land in which coniferous forests coexist with leaves, and the area of shrubs and young clearings and overgrown farmland is very high. In pure deciduous forests with rare. In the south of Western Siberia in the steppe is common on birch groves. Altai and Sayan found from the foothills to the bald area, but most often in forests dominated by deciduous trees, edges and settlements. In eastern Siberia, as is common in river valleys with willow and in larch with a developed understory burns and overgrown. In the mountains of Siberia and the Far East are often held by thickets of mountain pines and alpine tundra areas with scree giving shelter rabbits. Of seasonal movements within a small area is characterized by migration in autumn forest with a more developed understory, Belyakov providing better protection, and in the spring to open, where there is first grass. In the north of the area in the summer of rabbits to escape the midges, migrate to floodplains or other relatively open land, and in the winter migrate to areas with low snow cover, including in the upper belt of mountains. In Western Siberia, causes local movement can serve as precipitation in wet years hares leave the lowlands with pins and move to the high places. In normal size and the absence of abnormal external influences hare sedentary. Each animal is kept in a certain area, which he knows well. The more suitable habitat for birds and above their number, the smaller the size of the individual site. When seasonal change tracts (see above) areas 2-3 times more than without it. The most active movement, not exceeding, however, a few kilometers, recorded in autumn during the transition to winter feed and finding land, having good barrier properties. In some areas (tundra north-east of the European part and Siberia, Yakutia) with severe winter conditions sometimes there is mass migration of Whites, in which there are hundreds and even thousands flock animals. As a rule, they are confined to the years of the high number of hares and related both to the lack of certain food and with little-studied behavioral reactions have been reported with the number of outbreaks in various animal species hare mainly crepuscular or nocturnal animal. He is most active in the evening and the morning dawns. However, in different seasons, in different areas and under different weather conditions may change daily rhythm. Usually feeding ("period of apprenticeship") begins at sunset and ends at dawn, but the summer night time is not enough and rabbits fed in the morning. In places where they do not bother, Whites can begin to feed before sunset. Summer with an abundance of midges hares moving to daytime feeding, when the insects are not as active, the daily period of apprenticeship and observed during the rut. Usually, the length of night zhirovochnogo trace ("Malik") is 1-2 km, because of the time resting in rabbit feeding areas, but on moonlit nights frosty rabbit may extend 5-8 km. Before the thaw, snow and rainy weather white hair often do not go to feed. Part of the energy losses in these days replenished kaprofagiey (powered excrement) on lezhke. Bunny Day is usually conducted in lezhke. Maturation hare usually satisfied under spruce, in dense bush, in piles of firewood, under fallen trees, etc. In the absence of concern for staking Leszek device uses a single district, and sometimes uses the same seasoning. In winter, the seasoning is covered better than in the summer. Summer on the site of maturation hare only slightly trampled grass, in winter it thaw and heavy frosts, he digs a hole in the snow up to 1 — 1, 5 m in length, which may carry the day. Roy hole, staking compacts fluffy snow, not throwing it out. The longest hole there among the bushes on the lawn or edges — where the snow depth is greatest. Finding a place for maturation is highly dependent on weather conditions. In thaw or raining hare often arrange a maturation period of apprenticeship near the site — in the willow, under the juniper bushes, and sometimes even in Pashennaya furrow. Usually, however, to place seasoning chosen sheltered places where small animal easier to hide from enemies. From the maturation of place feeding rabbits running through the same route, especially in winter. Thus they live dirty footmarks trails which are normally used several animals that are visible even in the summer. In winter, the trail is well natoptannoy, not failing, can go even people without skis. Going to the maturation, hare usually travels long jumps. When approaching the animal lezhke double back. He makes a few "vzdvoek" (the return on your trail) and "smetok" or "discounts" (big jumps in the direction of the track). Vzdvoyki hare usually have a length of several meters. Sometimes hare tunable tracks. Entanglement allows traces hare hear predator and advance to leave the maturation until the stalker is delayed, solving vzdvoyki and brooms. Hare herbivorous animal with a pronounced seasonality of consumption of different food. In spring and summer, it feeds on the green parts of various, mostly herbaceous plants. The number used in food plants in this period is very high, which is connected with the "omnivorous" beast, and with an extensive area of distribution. In various parts of the range and type of habitat preferred clover, dandelion, Mouse peas, yarrow, goldenrod, bedstraw, sedges, grasses, and others willingly feed oats and clover in the fields. In the North West in a lot of eats shoots and fruits of blueberries, and in the Far East and in the leaves. Places mentioned eating fungi, in particular, deer truffle that animals dug out of the ground. In the fall, as the drying of grass that rabbits begin to eat young twigs of bushes and shrubs, especially willows and blueberry, and aspen bark. With the establishment of the snow cover roughage diet is becoming increasingly important. Winter are the main food of the young shoots of various trees and shrubs, and their bark. The composition of the dominant forage in different areas of the country have notable differences. Almost everywhere, hares eat a variety of willow and aspen growing in areas readily eat it. Birch and larch are eaten less readily, but, as the dominant species over large areas, are an important source of food, especially in the northern and eastern regions. In the south, white hair often eats shoots deciduous trees and shrubs — oak, maple, hazel. Place in the diet plays an important role of mountain ash, alder, juniper, wild rose. If possible and winter eats grasses and berries, feeding on devoid of snow blowing in the high places, or eating hay in a haystack. In the mountains of the Far East digs out from under the snow cones cedar and eats nuts. Like all herbivorous animals, hare lacks mineral salts. So he occasionally uses saline inclusion in the soil and swallows small pebbles, going for it on the banks of rivers, roads, or other areas with absent soil cover. Enjoys going to the salt licks. Often rabbits gnaw the bones of dead animals and discarded moose antlers. Rabbits become sexually mature in the year following their birth. In the Arctic, northern Yakutia and Chukotka Whites manage to reproduce only once per season, but the greater part of the area they breed several times a year. Number of litters in the northern and eastern parts of the area is two, and in the southern — three. Depending on weather conditions and the physiological state of animals rutting is more or less together and participate in it more or less hares. Females during the breeding season produces a characteristic cry — "kuverkane" to attract males. During the breeding season the female has several males. Often occur between fights. First rut takes place in early March, and sometimes at the end of February, in the south of the area, at the end of March in the north of the European part of Russia, north of Western Siberia, Yakutia and in the south of Sakhalin, and in April — early May in northern Yakutia, Chukotka and, probably, in the arctic regions of Siberia. It usually involved most, but not all females (80-90%). Rabbits are born about 50 days — in mid-April — mid-May. In the woods at this time is still snow in some places, so the rabbits first litter, especially early, is called "nastovikami." Shortly after the birth — in May and early June zaychiha mates again. The second cycle of reproduction takes place in the best conditions, and it involved almost all females. Rabbits second litter born at the end of June — July. In July — early August in the central and southern areas (very rare in the north) of Russia is the third estrus It involved a small number of females (40%). Rabbits third litter born at the end of August — beginning of September, and sometimes during late rut at the end of this month, and meet at a time of falling leaves, why, and are called "listopadnikami" Sometimes hare deviations from the terms of the normal breeding season. Occasionally rabbits first met in March, and the latter even in November. Early and late broods are usually doomed. Number of rabbits per litter varies quite strongly depending on the geographic area, age and physiological condition of female reproductive cycle are usually happens 3-6, rarely less than (1-2) or more (up to 11). Typically, more broods in areas where Whites breed only once a year (Yakutia). With several of the reproductive cycle is the largest number of rabbits in the second litter, falling at the beginning — middle of summer births are in secluded places in the woods, but the female hare special shelters usually do not like. Only in the far north of the hare sometimes dig a shallow hole. Rabbits are born sighted and woolly. On the first day of life, they are able to move independently Hare's milk is very fat (23% fat) — zaychiha may, in connection with the rabbits fed only once a day, and sometimes less After feeding rabbits, it usually goes away and comes back only the next day rabbits grow quickly and for 8 — 10 days are starting to feed up the grass on their own they are about two weeks of age have been known to hare hare feeding strangers rabbits. It is even possible that this phenomenon is quite common. Whites live in nature to 7-8 years, although the vast majority of them do not live up to the age of five. Molts hare twice a year — in spring and autumn. Timing and intensity of shedding depends on the light conditions and temperature. Changing day length triggers the molt, and the temperature determines the rate of leakage spring molt begins in much of the area from February-March and in the first stage takes place unobtrusive, but then goes very rapidly. The peak of its accounts for the period is usually the snow, this time winter coat falls literally shreds Duration molting process is about 75-80 days, and completely molted animals occur from mid-May in the south to the beginning of June in northern areas. In the north of Eastern Siberia and the Far East began to spring moult is in April and May, and she proceeds more rapidly, in about a month. Overall molt goes from the head to the back of the body and dorsal to ventral, but some parts of the upper body (ears, back of the neck) fade late, along with hips and rump. Autumn molt begins in the relatively near term (end of August — September) in the whole area white hair, although the timing of its beginning may be slightly shifted depending on the weather. Most birds molt autumn lasts about 80 days and ends at the time of snow cover, but in some years, snow can fall to the whitening of the birds, or, conversely, rabbits completely perelinivayut to snowfall. Autumn rabbits shed from the back of the body, limbs and abdomen to the back and head, where the remains of the summer fur kept particularly long. Adult rabbits shed a little earlier the young. Of weakened animals molt is delayed and not fully molted birds can be found until December. Traces of summer birds found difficult because of vegetation. Only on dirt forest road ruts along rivers so you can, if you look, find prints of their claws. Paw prints with virtually no imprinted. In winter, the tracks of hares caught in the woods and field edges very often. Hares move only gallop, with the hind legs during a jump are carried forward. Three types of hare heritage: food or zhirovochny, chassis and gonny. During feeding rabbit moves small jumps. Paw prints on the ground close to each period of apprenticeship, the hind legs just a little taken out of the front, and sometimes are not taken. Running track — a more or less long jump, in which the animal enters the hind legs far behind the front. He puts them almost in parallel, and one of the front legs for stability makes little forward. The soles of the hind legs when navigating the track are printed in full. Gonny be left running quickly (eg, escape the pursuer) rabbit. Jumping in this case, even more, the hind legs are placed well ahead of the other one, why trail stretched in length, and footprints lie close to a straight line. At fast running back legs leaving a print across the foot and the fingers — a hare runs at your feet. From traces of hare hare tracks are more rounded and less sharp front of the track. The difference in the size of the print front and back paws have white hair is noticeably smaller than the hare. Also watch white hair, and usually larger footprint hare, even at the smaller sizes of the beast. Apart Nasledov winter easily find traces zhirovok hares. Twigs of shrubs in areas feedings are carefully "cut", sometimes snow level. The repeated for several years obkusyvanii shoots on the trees may experience typical education. With mass invasion of the winter birds in some areas, there is almost complete destruction of thin twigs of bushes and undergrowth above the snow. You can also find bites bark on young tree trunks. In addition, the field is always a lot zhirovok rabbit droppings, better visible in the winter. Especially a lot of tracks is about fallen aspen — favorite feed birds in the winter. Crust with thin to medium thickness branches of trees is picked entirely.

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