Inspection. Try to determine the type of plants (to identify it). Make sure that it is fresh: not slimy, not eaten of worms. Do not take flabby, old plants.
Smell. Rub the part of the plant with your fingers. If it smells like bitter almonds or peach, it is impossible to eat.
Skin irritation. Squeeze a little juice or rub a little herb plot delicate skin (such as the inside of the forearm). If you feel a burning sensation in this notice swelling or rash action blurred area, the plant is not suitable for food.
Lips, mouth and tongue. In the next stage, with a positive result of the previous test, it is necessary (with a pause after each test): put a small piece of the plant on the lips, put a small piece in the corner of his mouth, put a small piece of the tip of the tongue, put a small piece under the tongue, chew a small piece of the plant .
In each case, he felt an unpleasant taste, feeling the pain in the throat, irritation or burning, do not use this plant for food.
Sample. Swallow a small amount of the plant and watch your health during the 3 to 5 pm Try this time nothing else to eat or drink.
Food. In the absence of discomfort, the plant can be considered edible and eaten.
It should be noted also that, despite the availability and abundance of mushrooms and berries can not fully compensate for the energy loss of the body, as their energy content is not more than 30 — 40 kcal per 100 g of food supply.
Production of wild plants can lead storage and finding small animals: mice and other small rodents, squirrels, hedgehogs.
It should be noted that the collection of wild plants — the process is quite long and complicated. With no skills to identify plants is not in the picture, in nature, it is difficult to collect, make no mistake, they are in sufficient quantity. But even if they manage to do this, completely replenish energy reserves of the organism wild plants are rarely successful.
Fishing. When the production of food of animal origin for their performance rather fishing than hunting. Even without a pre-canned fishing gear (that's the case in situations of forced autonomous existence), you can ensure yourself a fish by making a tackle of the material at hand. Fishing rods must be manufactured — it is thin and fit straight trunks of hazel, rowan, cherry, maple, etc. Before using the rod should be checked for strength, as it will be a shame to lose if broken rod and made from scrap materials line, and the "hook "and prey.
As a line, you can use the thread unwound the rope, laces, threads woven waist belt or backpack, etc. Strong threads can be obtained by dissolving the fabric backpack, clothes or existing fabric. Fishing line should be about 0.5-1 m long rod.
No trouble making sinker. Difficult to make a hook. For this fit nails, hard piece of metal wire, safety pins, rings from a bunch of keys,
pins of the icons, etc. (Fig. 149). Hooks can be made and the example of our ancient ancestors — of wood, bone, fish and animals.
Besides the usual fishing rods use Donkey zakidushku, tyrant, circle zherlitsy, various mesh vertices, artificially
made pens. In shallow water, you can use the prison. It is desirable to make the sting out of the metal.
Bait fish may serve as worms, insects and their larvae, shellfish meat, fish pieces, leftover food, shiny objects (spoons), etc. The fish are biting the bait from the same body of water, where it lives. Even worms and insects look better near the coast. You can get the bait with a long stick with a spear on the end. Stick dipped in thick seaweed near the shore, turning several times and pull out. Cheated on a fork of the vegetation will be a lot of dragonfly larvae, scuds, caddis flies and other small aquatic creatures, which can serve as a good bait for the fish. You can try to make an artificial lure of bright fabric, feathers, pieces of metal. This bait can also attract the attention of fish, especially if it is a lot or she is hungry.
Convenient places for fishing: on the fast river — a flood with a slow current, eddies, and on a calm — a narrowing of the channel, on the rapids. Ramps koryazhnik, deposits of stones — also convenient places to fish (Fig. 150).
In addition, it is useful to know that the fish are biting:
in calm overcast conditions in the presence of ripples on the water;
during the early sunrise and late sunset;
before spawning, and after it;
after a little rain in the south and west winds.
Fish will not bite:
during the spawning season;
in the north-east wind;
While the water in the river;
on a hot sunny day.
Fishing — is a science. It is important, as in any case, not only learn theory but also get good practice. Fishing success depends on the ability to produce the bait, the bait of a properly chosen, time of day, weather conditions. Is not uncommon for even a fisherman with a full set of gear factory production returns home without a catch. Can soothe only one consideration: the autonomous existence, as a rule, is away from populated areas, which means that fish there scared. This should give hope to succeed.
Hunting. Most value to people in an emergency is food of animal origin. In winter, when the plants are covered with snow, and the fish — a thick layer of ice, hunting is the only way of getting food. But it is in contrast to the collection of wild plants and even fishing requires special knowledge, skill and perseverance.
In the autonomous existence of possible hunting with firearms (if it happened to be a victim), home-made bows, catapults and various design pitfalls, snares and traps.
Various traps set in place the most frequent movement of animals — the norm for animal tracks, the watering places and constant feeding. They should put so as not to disturb the natural picture area. It should be remembered that the animals have a wonderful sense of smell, easily catch human odor. Success depends on the number of traps set.
Nora animal to animal trail can be used in the manufacture of simple tools — trap. They are a self-sealing loop.
Each locality use different homemade devices made from natural materials, as well as with various industrial materials. Studying the process of their manufacture and use can be useful to everyone.
Cooking. Meat or fish easier to cook, boil or fry on fire, smoldering coals on a spit, made from fresh, thin branches. Intense and prolonged heat treatment of the meat loses its nutritional value. In the conditions of primitive hunting, when a shortage of food, the meat is better than half-baked. This only applies to fresh meat.
Small game and birds can be fried on a spit, without removing the skin or feathers. They are easily removed after cooking.
Meat rabbits, wild rabbits, foxes, arctic foxes, kidney and tongue larger animals before treatment should soak in cold water 1 to 2 hours
The meat remains juicy and tender, small animal, and fish can be baked in clay. The fish can be baked in large leaves.
When cooking meat and fish should pay attention to their quality. The meat of many animals and fish abound trichina Far North, and should be thoroughly cooked before eating. Causes liver poisoning many Arctic animals.
Should not be eaten, even using a long process, the meat slow-moving, sluggish, with peeling skin squirrels and other rodents. They are exposed to infectious diseases. Seriously ill animals with very enlarged lymph nodes that are damaged or discolored skin around the head.
You can not eat fish that swell when you touch them or covered with thorns or sharp build-up, and have no side fins and scales. Dangerous all the fish have an unusual appearance and vivid coloring. Very dangerous to use stale fish, slow-moving, sluggish, with a bad smell.
Manufacturing crockery. When forced into an autonomous existence, most likely, not be victims utensils for cooking. In this case, you can use natural and available materials.
Boil water and cook food in a tin can. Sharp edges unopened cans have leveled stone, and the bank itself to burn at the stake for her removal from the walls of the tin. For such a "pot" should attach the handle from raw twigs. For this dish is not necessary and even dangerous big fire. Ways to fix dishes over the fire are shown in Fig. 151.
To boil water, you can use the following method. At recess should put a plastic bag, fill it with water and lay a floor small stones. Then, in the resulting capacity is lowered heated stones in the fire. To do this, choose stones that do not crack the quench. This way you can not only boil water, and cook the meat. Hole in the ground can be covered with foil instead of plastic bags, or use birch, missed the seam clay box.
To eat a meal, you can use a glass or metal cans. Given the compression properties of glass with a sharp cooling or compression, you can trim a bottle or vial. To do this, heat the bottle in a circle, wrapping her belt, bast, strong thread, and abruptly cooled, poured cold water. The sharp edges of the cleavage can clean the stone.