The brown bear and the man

In the minds of people for centuries to bring up the good against the world around him, the word "predator" is certain associations related to killing a living being, with rigor. Predation often connects people with bloodlust, the one that carries with it an unjustified evil — the "unreasonable" destruction of a predator of other animals.

Brown bear — Predator large, extremely strong, and, of course, dangerous to other animals, and, most importantly, for the people. In the past it was often attacked livestock, thereby bringing irreparable harm, especially if killing one horse — a support family farmers. In Central Russia bear poisoned oats in the fields, and did not avoid the hives, so the ratio of rural population to it has always been unequivocal: harmful to the human animal. Widely practiced hunting dens for which the visiting hunters pay good money. So the villagers tried to find a bear's den, and often the whole village came out to the paddock hunting — bear chased been charged from the thicket on a line of hunters. At every opportunity, tried to kill the bear, and at worst scare as it should. Although there was little hunters in rural areas (more cattle bread grown so doing), but the bears were kept away from the man, since every animal has lost fear of man, got in the end under the shot. Put the bears and pood traps. Such attitudes to bear shaped his many behavioral traits that ensure survival and it determines a particular predator cautious attitude to the person, perhaps the only to his enemy. [106]

In our time, there was a significant redistribution of the population, and now the majority of people live in cities or large towns. Know more about the bear but hearsay from children's fairy tales. General, covering all sectors of the population movement for the protection of nature, "our little" — animals and birds are not spared and the bear. But the brown bear — a top predator, and interest in him a person special, because each soul, along with respect for this beast crouched and justifiably natural fear. Psychologists man aims to hide the fear, do not look like a coward, and when they met with a bear it with bated breath, often goes to the convergence of a predator, teetering on the edge of the allowed security. And what happened? The bear does not immediately try to break a man, he walks in his footsteps, and then, emboldened, may seem. This behavior of a wild animal just reinforces curiosity and people trying to invent ways to get closer to the formidable predator — begins to spread handouts. Communication with the bear not pass by journalists, some journalists, and often in the public domain is an essay in the media (often with photos), penetrated complacency in relation to this beast.

SK Ustinov, a wonderful scholar of brown bears in Siberia, clearly not one who has seen the terrible tragedy of "dialogue" with the bear of man, writes: ". some "writers and naturalists," often met with a bear, apparently, only a desk and paint it a sort of good-natured bumpkin, a bear, which, by chance to feed him in the taiga winter quarters, and you can shake a paw. And feed, and shake. This is a dangerous thing "[137, p. 23].

Often publish these "naturalists" are printed under the title "From the love of nature," which in the eyes of the experts seems almost sacrilegious, such as "love" usually turns into a bear, the imminent death of a scavenger. No other way! As a surgeon cuts off diseased tissue in order to save the whole body, and the person must kill a bear or bear-beggar-scavenger, not only in order to avoid the possibility of an acute incident of his love. Shooting an animal with a changed mentality needed for the reason that the brown bear population in the reaction may follow quickly formed a group of scavengers, and this has serious implications for the conservation of the population itself.

Described a case in which a bear came to the driver's home farm "Red Hero". He was delighted, baby feed up. And he got into the habit to go to the village, where curious onlookers, which every day became more and more, you can get something tasty. Preschoolers were especially generous: they treat him cakes and sweets. In the episode, the main problem lies in the fact that adults without knowing it, and teach kids the wrong communication with wild animals.

This "bear" a child will remember for a lifetime and the remains of his dinner will always be put somewhere — "to bear."

Described another case. Got into the habit somehow bear to go to the kitchen geologists. Complementary feeding his people, and then we moved to a new location. In their absence the animal smashed store with food, and later found one yet He knows ways familiar to geologists, and "geologists warmly welcomed his favorite." And never occurred to them, perhaps, and not only them that this predator, even after spending the winter in the den, will be with admirable tenacity, literally on the brink of life and death look for opportunities to profit from human food. This beast is certainly doomed, but he can still bring trouble and so he lost the fear of man.

And here is a picture of a solid regional newspaper: the man hand-feed a bear, and pushing around kids. And commentary, "regales Bear." In this paper it is written that "the owner of the forest" — the bear initially caused fear among the locals, but then it was fed, and "meadow near the highway, where he always sits in the waiting goodies, become a kind of a circus or a zoo in the open air." A fed bear white bread, candy, milk, not to mention the honey. Medvedev said Vitka. And further: "With enthusiasm look at this beast of the forest children, watching as he plays with a husky," and at the end of registration, clearly aimed at the "unkind Hunter:" Yes, and you never know, suddenly on his way to meet short reasoning hunter. "

Such reports of feeding bears, people dealing with them in recent years has been in the press a lot. The time is put into place. Appeared in newspapers and by no means complacent reports as lured the bear attacked the man, and living in a cage in a careless girl pulled a hand that bears robber people came with guns, and, finally, that the beast this dangerous and joke with them should not be [135].

Reduction of old growth forests, frustration single coherent forest logging contributed to reducing the number and boundaries of the area bear. Currently, however, the situation has stabilized in many areas, and in the central regions of the Russian Federation, its population has increased almost everywhere. This can be explained by the decrease of the rural population here and forest overgrowth small fields are not suitable for processing mechanisms. The bear has adapted to life in young forests and overgrown clearings. [104]

In our rapid technological age people are increasingly looking for contact with wild nature, tends to be alone with the silence in the woods, breathe mushroom smell, hear the rustle of autumn deciduous golden foliage. And contact with nature, as we know, by culture of man.

Some people will live in a secluded spot, fish, sit in the evening campfire, gain the mushrooms and leave, and then they will only have a small mound of fresh earth where there was a fire, in which they burned all simple remnants of their stay. Others throw behind anyhow cans, bottles, waste rags, and most importantly — the remnants of a heavy meal, let the animals will eat. And the animals are eating.

Once beaten the forest road today already does not grow: come and go over it people. Get used to the smell of animals and man, and to the noise, which he brings with him, and to the dregs, and to the "goodies" that specifically laid out for them "lovers" of nature. Go bears on trails laid by people who go out to the parking lot, pick up garbage and gradually get used to the fact that near the man — his eternal enemy — something you can profit. And then such animals often go to villages, robbing hunters cabin and storage of food.

Like all wild animals, bears need a lot of work to do to get food. Formation of his behavior, as well as the subsequent adaptation to new food components, is in the direction of minimizing behavioral acts, ie, reduction of energy consumption to achieve the final result. Ready meals, and even all sorts of flavored seasonings, whose purpose — to cause appetite, may attract bears and how easily accessible food, and as a special "desire" to taste and smell of a condiment. Seasoning, do not carry with them the nutrients called, causes feelings, and people are selected from a variety of natural substances around us for centuries. Individual bears, they can be perceived as food sverhstimuly, and in this case, the animal may not only changes in eating behavior, but also the mental adjustment of particular persistent motivation. Wean-bear scavenger consumption of food remains on the table can not be human. Predator loses fear of man and becomes his boarder [9, 96]. We should pay particular attention to the fact that the most caloric food causes stronger taste and motivation to consume such food. For example, butter, eggs, meat, sour cream, cookies and candy, compared to other products have great appeal, especially with a lack of food.

Most dangerous contact with young bears. Their behavior is still undergoing reconstruction, so they are very easy to get in touch with the man, and began visiting the park with a timid people in their absence or garbage pits appear later in the afternoon near people often make a successful raid on the kitchen at night, and finally begin to regularly go and see the parking lot, eat scraps, begging, and then attack people to take possession of their food. [96]

Anxiety specialists for people's relations with large predators is not accidental. And it is important not only to the moral side of this relationship. The fact that this affects the animals themselves, which often have to destroy as dangerous to human life.

For today's interest in wild animals continues unabated, and the flow of visitors and tourists to the forest land is growing uncontrollably. SK Ustinov wrote: "In the last century it was known that trust can not be tamed to bear, it sometimes becomes dangerous for no rational reason" [137, p. 66]. People forget this. It is no accident and circus bear enters the arena with a muzzle. High level of organization of higher nervous activity, the ability to allocate training and contact with a person in a special category of predator animals, capable of mental breakdowns. The level of organization allows it to easily develop adaptation to environmental changes, which defines it as a form promising to life in transformed human nature. And only on the behavior of people depends, as will be developed in the future relationships that define each his own: Bears — and forest food, man — home and his desk.

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