The chemical composition of urine

The chemical composition of urine complex, known for more than 150 of its components. Quantitative determination of the normal components of urine — urea, uric acid, indican, sodium chloride and other produce for the study of kidney function, or metabolic disorders may be needed. Routine clinical analysis should only determine whether the urine of the most important pathological components. In a clinical urine sample determine protein, bilirubin (bile pigment), urobilin, sugar (if you have one — acetone and acetoacetate), sometimes blood pigments and indican.
Availability squirrel in the urine (proteinuria see) check quality tests, and if it is found, determine the quantity. All quality tests for protein based on the appearance of turbidity in its clotting, so they need to make a well filtered clear urine. Alkaline urine to acidify with acetic acid. Heat test: a test tube for 2/3 filled with urine, the upper part of which is heated to a boil, then add 5-8 drops of 10% acetic acid. In the presence of urine protein upper cloudy. Test with sulfosalicylic acid: to 3.5 ml of urine add 5-7 drops of 20% sulfosalicylic acid solution in the presence of protein appears turbidity or flakes. Number squirrel determined by the method of Roberts — Stolnikova based on sample Geller (see Heller sample). By making the test, note the time and watch for the appearance of the ring at the liquid. If it appears between the second and third minute, protein in the urine 0,033 ‰, if earlier, the urine is diluted and repeat test with diluted urine. Look for a dilution at which the sample ring will appear between the second and third minute. The amount of protein in the urine is equal to the multiplication of 0,033 ‰ for the dilution of urine. In addition to serum proteins in the urine stand sometimes abnormal proteins such as Bence-Jones protein (see) in multiple myeloma and certain leukemias.
Sugar offer quality samples, and if they are positive, determine its quantity. Before examining the urine released from the protein by boiling with acetic acid followed by filtration. The simplest qualitative sample Gaynesa: at 9 drops of reagent Gaynesa add 1 drop of urine and boil for 1 minute. In the presence of sugar falls brownish-green, yellow or brick sediment. Gaynesa reagent: 13.3 g of chemically pure copper sulfate dissolved in 400 ml of water, 50 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 400 ml water, 15 ml of pure glycerol is diluted in 200 ml of water. Combine the first and second solutions, and immediately pour the third. The amount of sugar was determined using a polarimeter. When glycosuria found in the urine dextrorotatory glucose, occurs when galactosuria clockwise rotation, in pregnant and lactating mothers have laktozuriya (see). The amount of sugar can be defined by the method Altgauzena. To 4 ml of urine was added 1 ml of a 10% solution of caustic alkali and boil 1 minute. After 10 min. determine which color on the color scale corresponds to the color of urine Altgauzena. In the absence of a printed color scale it is prepared in test tubes. Harvest 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4% glucose. They were treated at the same time and in the same way with the study of urine.
Test for acetone bodies. Reagent: 6 g of sodium nitroprusside in 100 ml of 30% acetic acid solution. To 6.5 ml of urine reagent was added dropwise to the tea-colored and layered ammonia. In the presence of acetone bodies formed at the liquid purple ring.
Bilirubin in the urine is not normal, it comes with jaundice (see Bilirubinuriya). Reveals breakdown Gmelin (see Gmelin test), Rosina. Rosina sample: the urine layered lyugolevsky or weak alcohol solution iodine, is formed at the liquid green ring.
Urobilin reveal breakdown Bogomolov: To 10 ml of urine add 10-15 drops of 10% solution of copper sulfate and 2-3 drops of hydrochloric acid. After 3-5 minutes. 2 ml of chloroform, and Stopper, repeatedly upset tube. With high content urobilin chloroform becomes pink.
Benzidine revealed hemoglobin breakdown (see): the mixture is poured into a test tube solution of benzidine and hydrogen peroxide (1.2 ml) was layered urine, in the presence of hemoglobin at the liquid appears blue or green color.
Indican reveal breakdown Jaffe. To 3.4 ml of urine was added an equal amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid, 1 drop of 1% solution of potassium permanganate (or 2 drops of 10% ferric chloride solution) and 2 ml of chloroform. Shake vigorously. Chloroform in the presence of indican, sinking to the bottom, gets a blue coloration.

Добавить комментарий

Tags: , , , , , ,

Site "Survival in the wild nature", glad to see you. If you come to us, it means you want to get complete information about survival in a variety of extreme conditions, in emergency situations. Man, throughout the development, sought to preserve and protect themselves from the various negative factors surrounding it - cold, heat, hunger, dangerous animals and insects.

Site structure "Survival in the wild nature" is simple and logical, selecting a specific section, you will find information. You will find on our website recommendations and practical advice on survival, unique descriptions and pictures of animals and plants, turn-based scheme to trap wild animals, tests and reviews of travel gear, rare books on survival and wildlife. The site also has a large section devoted to video on survival survivalist-known professionals around the world.

The main theme of the site, "Survival in the wild nature" - is to be ready to be in the wild, and the ability to survive in extreme conditions.

The Survival in the wild nature - how correctly to behave, it having appeared in an emergency situation. Ability to find a way out from any situation: to kindle a fire, to put traps, to prepare food, to arrange dwelling and a lodging for the night; to learn to knit knots, to clear water, to be guided by districts, correctly to choose equipment, a knife. Also you can download directories to tourists, encyclopedias survivals, video Bear Grills to Survive at any cost (Man vs. Wild).