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Semisynthetic penicillins and cephalosporins (betalaktamy) — the most effective and least toxic antibiotics. Penitsillinazoustoychivye penicillins — methicillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin — in different dosage forms are the basic tools to deal with resistant staph infection. By the degree of efficiency they are superior to other products. Semisynthetic broad-spectrum penicillins — ampicillin, ampioks, carbenicillin — bactericidal effect on most pathogens purulent infections, including those resistant to other chemotherapy drugs. Their application is also shown in severe infections of various gram-localization. Penicillin is still effective in the treatment of diseases caused by susceptible to the pathogens (streptococci and other gram-positive cocci), Penicillin is impractical to assign inflammatory processes without the establishment of the pathogen sensitivity to it.
Modern antibiotics are becoming increasingly important semisynthetic cephalosporins. Of first-generation cephalosporins — cephalexin (Oral) harness production for clinical trials submitted cephalothin (for injection) in the pharmacy network includes drugs tsefaloridinom (CE-porin) and cefazolin (Kefzol), in most cases (except for patients with allergy to penicillins) first generation cephalosporins may be replaced by semi-synthetic penicillins, especially ampioksa (a combination of ampicillin and oxacillin), the combination of oxacillin and carbenicillin. Great advantages over penicillin first and second generation have opened in recent years, the latest cephalosporins (third and fourth generation) — moksalaktam, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, etc. They have a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, good tolerability, in the kinetics of the distribution of the benefits of organ and tissue body. Some of them have a prolonged action and, obviously, in the future supplant tetracyclines and aminoglycosides.
Antistaphylococcal antibiotics — macrolides, lincomycin, fuzidin — used mainly for allergies to penicillin or select them resistant pathogens. In severe infections prescribed erythromycin phosphate for injection, which often does not yield performance semi-synthetic penicillins. Similar in action spectrum of lincomycin and fuzidin successfully used to treat a number of staphylococcal infections, including those with lesions of the bones and joints. They have a certain effect in infections caused asporogenous anaerobes.
Of broad-spectrum antibiotics leading place modern aminoglycosides, gentamicin is the primary means of dealing with severe purulent infection, especially caused by resistant gram-negative flora. Preparation used intravenously, the beginning of therapy to abjection gentamicin combined with semi-synthetic penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin). Retains its value as an antibiotic to fight the infection of gram-negative kanamycin, which is used in an anti-tuberculosis drug. Successfully completed clinical study of another new aminoglycoside — sizomitsin, on the approach tobramycin. These drugs have some features of the spectrum, pharmacological parameters. Some advantages in efficacy and tolerability have semisynthetic antibiotics of this group — amikatsii and netilmicin. In connection with the introduction of new aminoglycoside permanently restricted the scope of toxic and less effective for this group. The use of streptomycin in tuberculosis is permissible, some dangerous infections, endocarditis, caused by enterococci (in combination with penicillin). For infections of nontuberculous etiology use of streptomycin is not provided due to the high incidence of resistant pathogens and it forms large toxic. There is no basis for the application monomitsin, testimony to which is limited to the Pharmacological Committee of the Ministry of Health only cutaneous leishmaniasis.