The tasks set XXV Congress of the CPSU to the peoples of the USSR, so vast that their greatness felt by all reasonable people of our planet.
"I think – says the actress of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, member of the Central Committee, Jiřina Shvortsova – that future historians, carefully and impartially looking at the thickness of years, pondering the meaning of the event, will be called the century of this era of the Soviet Union.
It was his birth, and then the rapid development of the victorious determined the nature of time, and lit a beacon to the working people of faith and hope. "
And indeed, before us, the Soviet people, a new, historic "tenth height," which must take in the next five years! Its main theme, according to Marietta Shahinian, "born at a meeting of the party and the people's ideas of practice" – a "basic directions of development of the national economy of the USSR in 1976-1980." Contained in them are great challenges for the development of new areas of Siberia and the Far East, the mobilization of the abundant natural resources of the Siberian taiga.
Scheduled for staffing to provide for a rapid pace of construction in these areas, houses and cultural and community institutions; to expand exploration in order to further increase the mineral resources, primarily in the areas of active mining and in newly developed parts of the country to speed up the identification and exploration of new oil, natural gas and condensate primarily in the Middle Ob and in the north of the Tyumen region, in Eastern Siberia, Yakutia and other places, to accelerate the development of South Yakutia coal district. Initiated an accelerated development Kansk-Achinsk fuel and energy complex. Widely expand the work in coal mining techniques in the eastern parts of the country continue to work on the formation of the Unified Energy System of the country by the interconnection of Siberia and Central Asia with the European energy system, construction of main power lines 500, 750 and 1150 kV, to expand logging and reprocessing in Siberia and the Far East, to continue work on the drainage of land in the Far East continue begun in the ninth five-year construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway and approaches to it, make the further development of river transport, especially in Siberia, the Far East and Far North . Increase the capacity of Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur and other ports, and more.
Twenty years ago, came to Siberia great science for the development of the Siberian economy. Her participation in the years built strongly demanded major hydroelectric development of oil, the economic development of new industrial areas of the East, and now the "construction of the century" – BAM.
Academics Lavrent'ev, S. Hristianovich and Sobolev called first to go to Siberia, proposed the creation of a new branch of the Academy of Sciences.
Today, Siberian Branch – is a group, and 35 thousand people. This 70 academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, about 400 doctors and more than three thousand candidates who are working in 48 research and development facilities.
Since the late twenties, the Soviet government began to exploit the Ural-Kuznetsk area, then the Angara-Yenisey. Then it was time for the development of oil and gas in Western Siberia, and finally, development of areas adjacent to the Baikal-Amur Railway (Fig. 2).
These programs, which are logically related, are an effective form of phased movement of the economy in the East.
Fig. 2. The scheme of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM).
1 – coal, 2 – lignite, 3 – oil, 4 – fuel gas, 5-iron ore, nonferrous metals, b, 7 – apatite, 8 – mica, 9 – operating railway, 10 – under construction railway
Use of natural resources of the Angara-Yenisei region – one of the major long-term programs. Occupying 15 percent of the all-union territory and with 2.2 percent of the population, this area has a half-Union reserves of coal, nearly one third of the wood resource, one-quarter of water energy and many others.
Create Bratsk-Ust-Ilim complex in the middle reaches of the Angara River began in the fifties. In taiga locations that recently known except that the local farmers but hunters have encountered two large hydropower, aluminum plant, the timber industry, Mining, Heating Equipment, built railways, roads, power lines, paved skyway. The feat of the Soviet people in the state increment Siberia 94,000 square kilometers of the economic development of the territory, with a population of about 400,000 people. It produces 30 percent of the industrial output of the Irkutsk region, including 35 billion kilowatt-hours of electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, wood chemical products, and more.
As previously uninhabited region for 20 years have grown four cities (Bratsk, Ust-Ilim, Vikorevka, Zheleznogorsk-Ilim) and 6 towns, with some well-appointed apartments with central heating, domestic use of electricity provided by a network of shops, clubs, cinemas, schools and kindergartens.
It's only been 20 years since then, both on the steep bank of the Angara River broke through the first group of builders, and now the Bratsk – stronghold development taiga, extending from the city to the north and east.
One of the major problems of the Tenth Five in Siberia – the continuation of the formation of powerful clustering. They help create the most rational use of the enormous natural wealth of the eastern regions of the country will achieve the greatest return on capital investment, measured in many billions of rubles.
Regional production complex – a single economic organism groups of companies within a certain area (inter-economically and technically that complement and serve each other), to provide the best (optimal) use of available natural, human and material resources.
These days, the whole transport network in Eastern Siberia and the Far East is based on the Trans-Siberian railway, constructed in 1891-1904, respectively. However, despite the significant increase in turnover, is now its limited capacity and practical capabilities can not meet the needs of the Soviet state and hinder the future development of economic regions of Siberia.
West Siberian Plain – a vast plain of the world: its area of about three million square kilometers. Gas Berezova that hit in 1953, and the oil gusher Shaimov received in 1961, initiated a new development resources in Western Siberia. Opening Ust-Balyk and Samotlor own oil reserves, and the Bear Urengoy their gas a triumph of good geological thought, deed pioneers.
West Siberian complex is formed mainly in the Tyumen and Tomsk regions as the main base of the country's oil and gas.
Only in 1977, Tyumen geologists have added to its market five new oil and gas fields. In the tenth five-year plan is scheduled to increase production in the territorial-production complex: crude oil to 300 – 310 million tons and natural gas production to 125-155 billion cubic meters.
Siberian Sayan complex comprises three industrial units: created in Khakassia Abakan-Montenegrin industrial hub, where dominate coal, molybdenum, iron ore, timber processing, and food industries, in the Yenisei-formed Minusinskuyu Kuraginsky industrial hub, where dominated electrical engineering (turbogenerators, power transformers, equipment for high-voltage power lines) and the other, in the very area of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power generated Sayanogorsk industrial hub.
Successfully formed the largest Bratsk-Ust-Ilim, Boguchansky other new territorial-industrial complexes and industrial centers in the north of Siberia, Baikal and the Buryat ASSR.
North Baikal area is rich in non-ferrous metal ores, oil and gas, forest area, so there will be the development of enterprises of metallurgy, petrochemical industry and wood processing.
Central – Aldan-Chulman-Udokan area is rich in coal, iron ore, copper mines, apatite – there will develop the mining and metallurgical industry.
The Baikal-Amur Mainline after the commissioning of the base will be the springboard that encourage sustainable development, use, and change the entire industrial and agricultural focal structure to convert wilderness Siberian taiga has a huge new progressive economic center.
The favorable combination of natural resources, technical and economically and geographically define the most efficient and expedient formation of separate accommodation of clusters belonging to a major new economic system in the areas adjacent to the Baikal-Amur Mainline.
Eastern Siberia – a unique area for the production of cheap energy. There are more than 40 percent of the hydropower resources of the USSR, more than half of all timber, furs, over 80 percent of all coal reserves, various minerals, and more.
The Far East has a great diversity of forests, they covered over 40 percent of the area (250.3 million hectares).
The Pacific region is rich in ores, timber, here based on the incoming gas from Yakutia and Tyumen Oil plans to develop gazoneftehimiyu and wood industry.
XVII Congress of the Young Communist League announced the Baikal-Amur Railway Union Komsomol construction project. Immediately after the congress, six hundred best sons and daughters sent Komsomol on the cutting edge of building communism.
Volunteers admonished CPSU General Secretary, Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet Leonid Brezhnev: "We firmly believe that the members of the Komsomol, the youth will make a worthy contribution to this great building site. Baton of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Magnitogorsk and Turksib, Dnieper and virgin soil, Bratsk and KamAZ they will carry on new, unexplored expanses of Siberia. "
Solemn was meeting envoys station Taishet. It was from here that the BAM. While the railway goes on, deeper into the forest, the young builders expect a lot of work here to lay the second track, equipment, stations, sidings. The envoys were divided into two parts. One off for the western portion of the Ust-Kuta, another to go further, in the eastern section, the main base is located in the town of Tynda. Before the eyes of the protesters appears symbolic golden key to the future of the Baikal-Amur Railway. He is cut in half. One takes Antonina Galyanova of Mordovia, a member of the western group, the other – Valentine Dunaev in Ivanovo region, a representative of the Amur. On the key words: "Joining together, you will give the key to the treasures of the motherland Siberia."
Now builders line of more than 100 thousand – mostly young people, the Komsomol. For thousands of miles – from the Lena to Cupid – turned the greatest peaceful building of a century under the name of "BAM". In accordance with the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers BAM should be constructed for the years 1974-1983. 180-km line station BAM (the Trans-Siberian) – Tynda station (in BAM) introduced a temporary operation in early May 1975, and in 1978 was commissioned line Tynda – Berkakit length of 222 kilometers. The second way Taishet – Lena length 680 kilometers scheduled for completion by 1982. Hard date set for such a huge and complex construction, 320 miles per year! This is much higher than even those rates that have been achieved by the laying of the railway line Abakan – Taishet.
It seems that only recently broken the first century of peace builders deaf taiga areas. Now the work is in full swing. The taiga has built more than a thousand kilometers rides for railways, roads, reconstructed Duse-Alin Tunnel of 1800 meters. The commissioning of the nearly 1.5-kilometer-long bridge across the Amur – the eastern gate of the BAM, opening a thousand miles shorter way to the Pacific Ocean. Most of the work to create a line falls on the tenth five-year plan. During this time, planned to build the western section of the station Lena to Baikal tunnel length 284 kilometers, to finish construction of a bridge across the Lena; open to traffic patrol Chudnichny to patrol and Nebel station Ulkan; take into operation the second path railway Taishet – Lena, on eastern sector to build dozens of stations and sidings, including 15 stations from towns with populations ranging from 40 to 100 thousand people, 270 of artificial structures, including 16 major rail bridges longer than 100 feet each, and much, much more.
Much of the area adjoining the highway BAM studied not enough. Therefore, in the area of construction BAM hurry expedition various research and survey organizations and institutions. On the route are groups of prospectors, born on sheets of Whatman draft individual sections of the road, its engineering structures, villages, still being worked out many specific questions.
For example, the expedition of the Northwest forest management enterprises started mapping the "green sea" Transbaikalian taiga. Leningrad, experts will identify stocks of wood, the composition of its rocks, placing berries that abound in these places. Their main object of study is an area equal to almost four hundred thousand hectares of newly created Tungiro-Olyokminsky forestry.
BAM on the track has two expeditions biologists. Their main task – development of individual biological measures to protect people from the Siberian midges.
Prospectors Mosgiprotrans long before deploying BAM Construction began exploring underground water reserves. The challenge for them has fallen very hard, as almost all future station line located in the permafrost. And she "keeps locked up" underground river with a beautiful drinking water. Find them easy to take advantage of the wealth of subpermafrost sources – even more difficult.
Siberia and the Far East – the abundance of various minerals. It found more than five thousand fields, of which more than 600 have all-Union importance. In this extensive territory B. Botvinnik identified 24 groups of mineral resources, which represent the most successful versions in terms of the efficiency of their industrial development. These groups should serve as the basis for creating this large industrial enterprises, the formation of large industrial centers and clustering for ferrous, non-ferrous metals, coal, petroleum, chemical industry.
Geologists search engines are integrated study of mineral resources on a large-sized multi-kilometer area along the highway BAM. And it's not a walk with a backpack and a hammer in his hand, and the complex systematic work of alpine taiga, swamps, with full off-road use of scientific methods and the latest technology.
It is difficult to be a trailblazer, settle and arrange well rough country. In a significant elevation above sea level topography of the northern Baikal region and the Far East is dominated by mountains and plateaus. Among them are the Baikal, it is difficult Severomuisk through which it is broken the 15-kilometer tunnel Udokan ridges, spurs Stanovoy Range peaks with an altitude ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 thousand meters.
Variety of geologic conditions and mineral wealth define large scale mining: explored deposits of copper ore at Udokan, the combination of coking coal and iron ore deposits in South Yakutia (district Chulman and Aldan), and Baikal Chayskoe nickel deposits with grade of copper and cobalt in the Lower Angara, Orekitanskoe molybdenum deposit, deposit of rare metal ores Katuginskoe, proven oil and gas fields in Eastern Siberia and Yakutia, Leno Vilyui province, near the town of Peace revealed deposits of gas and condensate in the Lena River near the village of Markov (Irkutsk Oblast) is open first oil field in Eastern Siberia, apatite deposits in South Yakutia containing phosphorus oxides, near the village Chulman found Charo-Tokkinsky and Olekma-Amginsky iron ore deposits and many other ore storage, "print" geologists search engines.
Adverse geological conditions of the area are the BAM: permafrost (Fig. 3) and the high seismicity, from 6 to 9 points.
Fig. 3. Map of permafrost
Permafrost affects pochvoformiruyuschie processes and in mountainous terrain dominated mainly mining and cryogenic-taiga, mountain forest-calcareous soil, and in the eastern part of the route – mainly mountain taiga alluvial humus and burotaezhnye-gleyed. Here mainly grow mountain larch forests on the northern slopes of the mountains can be seen cedar, fir and spruce Ayan, on the southern – often pine forests and mountain meadows.
At the foot of the ancient Eastern Sayan mountains stretching from the west to the east line of the old Siberian railway. And its north permafrost affects the various aspects of life and human nature in Siberia. In separate sections of the route discovered by drilling powerful ice lenses.
Sometimes, even in January, in Transbaikalia land remains bare, only here and there in the hollows seen some snow and cold weather at this time is up to 40 degrees and more. So the earth gets one year more cold than heat, and excess cold supports permanently frozen state, more or less thick layer of earth, which in the summer time to thaw out from the top only to a limited depth. Therefore, there are remains of extinct animals – mammoths and woolly rhinoceros. For example, Berezovka River, a tributary of the Kolyma River in Yakutia, 320 kilometers from Srednekolymsk in April 1901 was found perfectly preserved corpse of a mammoth. This giant effigy kept in the museum of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Leningrad (Fig. 4). And in our time, such findings can not be excluded. So, June 23, 1977 at the stream Kirgilyah, left tributary of the river Berelekh, bulldozer A. Logochevu of diligent cooperative "Banner" Frunze mine was lucky to find a mammoth – six-month "baby" in length 115, height 104 cm to 57 cm of trunk, covered with chestnut hair. Scientists are now studying it.
The last thing on earth thaws moss bogs. There even in late summer, sometimes enough to just remove a layer of moss – and permafrost starts just under the moss. Wetlands covered with thickets of dwarf birch.
In Siberia, the largest swampy area, which was called in the old days "Vasyuga some tundra," occupies the southern part of the taiga between the Irtysh and Ob area of 534 long and 427 kilometers wide.
FURNACE "pigweed" (swamp covered hummocks) stands in the way. Even a strong man can not go to the Mari more than 8-10 miles per day. You have to jump from tussock to tussock, and they become loose. Between hummocks water or dirt, which is located beneath the frozen ground, hard as a rock, so that "suck" in the swamp can not. Below the soil surface is ice even in the summer. Its layers are deposited layers from a few inches to the thickness, measured in meters.
When saddled with rider or horse is on Mari, she is not stepping over bumps, and between them. Her feet sink into the mud, and sometimes it sinks to his belly. Some horses are frightened, begin to jump, fight to get the legs, and often suddenly fall on the side (Fig. 5). People, even in the presence of horses, a significant part of the way to the Mari have to walk so as not to burden the already weary animals. To reinforce the forces horses chew tough marsh grass.
Fig. 5. Unburden have bogged down in the Mari horse
On dry ground is deeply frozen ground, and can even be entirely absent. In particular, it does not like running water in the earth where the water moves underground, there is usually no frost.
Of all the trees just better adapted to the permafrost below the valleys, larch, from and consists mainly taiga permafrost. Pine or cedar grow taller, where land and where there is no frost. The upper tier of the mountain ranges typically occupy dense impenetrable thickets of mountain pines.
In the northeastern part of Yakutia are giant ice. Their area measured square kilometers, and the volume of ice – tens of millions of cubic meters.
River near the western and central part of the BAM mainly belong Lena River basin, and along the rest of the route – the Amur. Significant barriers to the highway are: Lena, Vitim Olyokma, Zeya, Selemdzha, Bureya, Cupid. Many small and medium-sized rivers freeze to the bottom of the river and create a line of ice dams that prevent the movement of unfrozen water. Periodically, these water masses break through the surface ice (ice thickness on many Siberian rivers exceed 1.5-2 meters), digging out a powerful stream, flooding all around. The resulting lake again soon fettered ice, but after a while the new portion of the river water flooded large areas, forming ice up to several meters (Figure 6).
Most ambitious faults surround the Pacific Ocean. This famous Pacific "ring of fire" with the chains of majestic volcanoes. This also applies to our North Okhotsk volcanic ridge (Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands 22 40 volcanoes).
Thanks to observant geologist Victor Prokopyevich Solonenko and others in 1961 opened a new Baikal volcanic and hydrothermal area near highway BAM. Detachments Udokan seismogeological expedition reached the routes for the next year and investigated three volcanoes, one fracture, called Syni named mountain river, and two volcanic cones: Aku (translated from the Evenki meant "impregnable", "impenetrable" with a crater 1.5 kilometer in diameter) and Chepe, located on Aku 7 km to the northeast, in the upper left tributaries Eimnaha, the most majestic of the young volcanic rift zone.
Fig. 6. A crack in the ice, flooded forest
Unique nature of Lake Baikal – the deepest lake of the world. It is no coincidence, "Gidrometeoizdat" published "Atlas of wave and wind of Lake Baikal" Numerous maps, charts, tables contain data from across the lake for navigation at typical weather patterns. It should be used in the preparation of hydro-meteorological forecasts near Lake Baikal, planning chores, construction of shore protection and waterworks.
BAM stretch from west to east of the variation in climate. The western and central parts of the line are in Eastern Siberia, in the belt of temperate and cold climate with pronounced kontinentalnostyo. The temperature difference of the coldest and warmest months reaches 45-65 degrees. Usually in January is cold -25, -35 degrees, in July – the heat 30 degrees. Cold winter lasts 5-6 months of the year. Daily temperature varies widely. Slight precipitation falls mainly in the summer. The severity of the winter and low winter temperatures in Siberia very complicate life and work of people.
In the summer of 1926 was equipped first Soviet expedition maloizvedannye then mountain taiga of northeastern Siberia, led by the famous geologist S. Obruchev. Chance, for several reasons, in late October, the expedition arrived in Oymyakon and, instead of returning to Yakutsk, was delayed until December. This delay has actually led to the discovery of the cold pole.
Cold pole saw Verkhoyansk under long-term observation, which was recorded in February 1892 temperature -69.8 degrees. SV Obruchev suggested that in Oymyakon depression, where the temperature is 5 degrees lower than in Verkhoyansk, is cold pole.
Now scientists think and Oymyakon, and Verkhoyansk "equal" pole of cold Northern Hemisphere.
Monsoon circulation of air flow caused by the uneven heating and cooling of the continent and the ocean, climate characterizes the Far East – the eastern section of the highway. Summer wet sea air – summer monsoon – rushes toward the mainland, was accompanied by rain, causing floods on the rivers. Winter air masses move from the continent to the ocean – a winter monsoon – bringing dry, very cold air and clear, very cold weather.
On the construction of Siberia, in a remote and rough country, leaving habitable, cozy place, all over the country are going volunteers. Undoubtedly, among the readers of this book there are active transducers nature enthusiasts, eager to devote their labor and energy exploration wild but beautiful and fabulously rich land, which lies to the east of the Ural Mountains. This land is already big and small cities, powerful factories and mines, the greatest power in the world, but there is little or uninhabited areas, the area of which exceeds | territory of other European states. While there unchallenged dominion taiga wilderness. Judicious use of nature in remote parts of Siberia and the Far East is one of the most important tasks of building communism.
The massive construction Tenth Five – BAM and other prospectors and attract thousands of builders, including for the first time entering the unique conditions of the taiga region. Them in the first place and is addressed in this book.
"Scary boundless taiga,
In which roams wild animal …
We have such a dense forest,
What can be tens of CES *
Not meet any of the yurt. "
Baal Habyryys (CES – Yakut measure of length equal to 10 kilometers)