The organization and structure of rescue services in the USSR and abroad

In the Soviet Union began networking rescue station was started in the 30s, it completely modern structure took shape in 1959, Mountain Rescue Service is working with the Office of Soviet Union Mountaineering Council of Voluntary sports clubs and organizations, it comprises 16 control and rescue items located in the Caucasus, Pamir and Tien Shan. Voluntary spasotryady in the Crimea, in the Urals, Kamchatka. Rescue work in the mountains, we are engaged in two trade union organizations — Tourism and alpine rescue services.

All the activities of our rescue services focus on the following key objectives:

1) prevention and control of the safety of climbing activities;

2) the organization and conduct of search and rescue and search operations;

3) the investigation of accidents in mountaineering activities;

4) training the emergency services;

5) control over the protection of the environment.

The first of these tasks — defining. The quality of its implementation depends rest of the work rescue, safety in mountaineering. Specifically expressed in the following areas:

1) checking and preparation of training and training places of classes, training routes;

2) the observation and study of the state and kamneopasnyh avalanche slopes, possible debris flows in the area, mountain trails and mountain crossings over the river;

3) the compilation and maintenance of filing route area;

4) obtaining from central meteorological forecasts for the area and timely information about weather sports teams that go to the mountains;

5) supervision of training activities in mountaineering basics first pre-hospital medical care, as well as for the acquisition of skills in organizing rescue climbers in the mountains;

6) check the readiness to enter the climbing training and sports teams, taking control delivery time of routes and monitor their implementation;

7) coordination of sporting groups in the alpine zone;

8) monitoring compliance with safety measures in the educational and sports climbing.

An important section of the control points and Rescue (CSR) — an organization of voluntary spasotryadov the field, conducting classes and fees to improve special and sports training of volunteer rescuers. PCB serve as centers of climbing life. On the basis of the PCB planned and carried out all activities related to the activities of grassroots sections of climbing.

Given the huge space, especially in Central Asia, to which the activities of the staff small contingent PCB should recognize the particular importance of their work on the development and consolidation of voluntary spasotryadov whose status needs to streamline and give full support.

Recently, an important place in the activities of the PCB is nature conservation highlands wearing mostly preventive nature. Instructor PCB testing activities mountaineering activities, pay attention to cleanliness bivouacs, the conservation of nature in the places most frequented by climbers. In the Caucasus, in particular, the instructor PCB is working to protect the relic plants — rhododendrons in Central Asia under the strict control and protection taken juniper.

Highly developed and Rescue Service in the mountains of Western Europe. The first attempts to apply to the organization in 1896, when Austria was established mountain rescue service. In 1897, there was a similar service in France, and in 1902 the Swiss Alpine Club has established a network of permanent rescue stations in all major alpine valleys. In England, the mountain rescue service was started in 1933, in Scotland, in 1964 in Italy rescue in the mountains held Italian Alpine Club and the Association of mountaineers Mediterranean. In 1953 he organized a rescue service.

There are rescue organizations in West Germany, East Germany, Poland (at the sports committee), Bulgaria, Romania (in the sports committee), Yugoslavia, Spain, Sweden (with the police), the United States and Canada. Typically, these organizations are made up of volunteers, united under the auspices of the Red Cross. In Czechoslovakia, the mountain rescue work in the system of the Committee for Physical Culture and Sports.

Brief information about the rescue services in some European countries are shown in Table. 9. They come from different sources and are in different years.

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