Described in the previous section, the technical means at their proficiency in the use of methods can help small group of self-evacuate the victim of a dangerous place, or even to perform a complete cycle of rescue. However, in cases where the available fast delivery to the scene of regular life-saving, especially if the condition of the victim and severe diagnosis is unclear, always best to use them. The basic principle – to do no harm and do not exacerbate – should be a primary consideration in the rescue and heavy work. However, each climber must possess the skills to use available tools and continually improve them.
Below, we discuss some technical aspects of rescue, and first of all the shipping, works with improvised means.
So, the group had an accident, there are victims, who decided on their own to evacuate to safety. Depending on what relief is shipping, choose the way it affected the insurance funds and transporters.
We call the simplest means for carrying the victim, which can be quickly provisioned by the members of the group.
Stretcher of shtormovok. In the presence of skis, ski poles, the poles of the two shtormovok, the sleeves are long push these items are obtained quite suitable for transportation uncomplicated relief stretcher. To give them the lateral stiffness at the head and feet tied two ice axes. How to bind ice axes shown in Fig. 29, f.
Rope stretcher. If you intend to descend or climb injured by a rope stretcher tally free of the ropes. There are several ways to knit them: Phillips stretcher – Braids, litter-basket, a stretcher on the nodes of the conductor (Pigott). Transportation of stretchers much easier if the loops of thread a long pole, and it reduces the number of porters in one shift.
Very comfortable simple stretcher, called a stretcher Pigott, tally as follows: left end of the free 5 m rope, then knit a series of 8 knots conductor length of about 90 cm each; further reserve enough rope to make shoulder straps; remaining loose end is passed in loop, as shown in Fig. 35, a. Unused rope can be threaded into the central loop to a stretcher could hold the side.
Stretcher with the victim attached to the main rope at five points. Sometimes they can be fixed with a stick or ice axes. For the convenience of the victim's head tied up loop, or the headscarf (Fig. 35, b). Litter (except the litter-basket) are usually laid, sleeping bag and personal belongings of the victim.
In any case you can not use rope stretcher with suspected fracture of the spine or base of the skull!
During the descent, with an accompanying rise stretcher he is preparing a seat-loop and attaches directly to the main rope, and more – on a separate rope to have sufficient freedom of movement.
Rope seat. If the condition of the victim can be transported by uncomplicated relief seated, you can make a rope out of the saddle to carry one or two porters. Depending on the number of porters rope wound into rings up 40-60 or 90-110 cm in the first case had looped rope is divided into two parts, as shown in Fig. 29b. The victim wears a ring on her hips, and rescue – on the shoulders. To the victim fell out of the saddle with sharp slopes, it secures behind a special loop. Carrying on a rope with two loops of porters coiled rope cross eight, and the porters put loop over his shoulder. The victim sits at the crossroads between the loops (see Fig. 29).
Instead of the rope in the latter two cases, the system can be used for binding. When carrying the couple do a great loop of the two zones.
In cases where a rope or belt can not be used to carry the victim, and even lowering it to the wall use a backpack. Backpack worn on the contrary, the flap side down, pull the strap maximum, and the victim gets in the backpack. Method is suitable for carrying low, "small", the victims. Harness loop with obligatory. Much easier to feel aggrieved if the backpack to pieces specially cut holes for legs.
The set of personal equipment climbers walking on trails III category of difficulty, required gazebo, locked with the chest harness. If for some reason it is not, for the climbs and descents can use the gazebo on the end of a rope. When lifting the victim useful special double (Fig. 36a) and carabiners (Fig. 36, b) the rollers, and for individual self-lifting – various clips of "Zhumar."
Transported on a flat terrain and trails can be on a stretcher of poles or poles, and with a limited number of porters – on a stretcher-scraper, which can haul one person. From conventional stretchers scraper is different in that the poles are chosen more for her big (4-5 m) and they tie shock of long branches.
For transportation over snow scraper can be made out of the tent. Described above rope stretchers can also be used as a scraper, with a braided rope tie up the tent, vinyl chloride film or something like that to protect the rope.
When transporting the trails and grassy slopes insurance victim and rescuers are supporting the side. In the narrow and crowded places stretcher passed to the hands of a pair of porters to another. If the victim is transferred one or two rescuers, their hedging and support other team members.
When transporting the steep terrain, the rocks that require insurance, establishing location changes or extension cords, safety and braking systems described above.
However, if you need to evacuate the victim to a safe place for a short distance, to lower or raise a single rope, and for this there are at least three or four people, you can not forging complex braking systems, "Burlatsky way" to implement this simple operation, using as brakes, for example, eight or simply holding or pulling the rope by hand. You can manually pull the rope and the road through the cracks.
The main attention should be paid to the victim and rescuers insurance to take care of a reliable insurance to the final point, to provide all the security measures of the most basic (not to be under the transported) to the more serious (and a way to protect the place where the victim is transported). Unfortunately, in the rush sometimes neglected by insurance, which leads to tragic consequences.
In the case of transport on steep wet grassy slopes where the organization reliable insurance is difficult, no harm can be scored directly into the grassy slope of ice picks or ice pitons.
When transporting the victim in a backpack necessarily hedged to a loop of repshnura porter. With up or down on two ropes one of them desirable to use as fear.
It must be stressed the importance of providing the best possible facilities for the victim, including purely domestic (warmed, water, feed).